home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.


Language: Italian (code: it)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.1 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Cristina Bosco, Manuela Sanguinetti.

Repository: UD_Italian-PoSTWITA
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Genre: social

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Italian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [msanguin (æt) di • unito • it]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
Features assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
Relations assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification


PoSTWITA-UD is a collection of Italian tweets annotated in Universal Dependencies that can be exploited for the training of NLP systems to enhance their performance on social media texts.

PoSTWITA-UD has been created by enriching the dataset used for the EVALITA 2016 task of Part-of-Speech tagging of Social Media (see (Bosco et al. 2016)). The original corpus consists of 6,438 tweets of the development set (114,967 tokens) and 300 tweets of the test set (4,759 tokens), annotated at POS level only. The conversion and syntactic annotation process was carried out through alternating steps of automatic scripting and manual revision, and finally with some out-of-domain parsing experiments. Parsing results also underwent a manual revision by two independent annotators.

New since v2.3: In order to meet the requirements of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), entered into force on May 2018, the resource content has been pseudonymized, by substituting original tweet IDs and user names.


The treebank development has also been possible thanks to the contribution of Fabio Tamburini (University of Bologna), who used AnIta for lemmatization and morphological analysis, and of Oronzo Antonelli (University of Bologna), Alberto Lavelli (FBK, Trento), and Alessandro Mazzei (University of Turin), who worked on the parsing experiments.

Statistics of UD Italian PoSTWITA

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Reflexive Passive

Relations Overview