home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

Mood: mood

Values: Adm Cnd Des Imp Ind Int Irr Jus Nec Opt Pot Prp Qot Sub

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.

Ind: indicative or realis

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.


Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.


Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen. Grammars of some languages may classify conditional as tense (rather than mood) but e.g. in Czech it combines with two different tenses (past and present).


Pot: potential

The action of the verb is possible but not certain. This mood corresponds to the modal verbs can, might, be able to. Used e.g. in Finnish. See also the optative.


Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive

The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain. In German, it may be also used to convey the conditional meaning.


Jus: jussive / injunctive

The jussive mood expresses the desire that the action happens; it is thus close to both imperative and optative. Unlike in desiderative, it is the speaker, not the subject who wishes that it happens. Used e.g. in Arabic. We also map the Sanskrit injunctive to Mood=Jus.


Prp: purposive

Means “in order to”, occurs in Amazonian and Australian languages, such as Arabana.


Qot: quotative

The quotative mood is used e.g. in Estonian to denote direct speech. The boundary between this mood and the non-first-hand Evidentiality is blurred.


Opt: optative

Expresses exclamations like “May you have a long life!” or “If only I were rich!” In Turkish it also expresses suggestions. In Sanskrit it may express possibility (cf. the potential mood in other languages).


Des: desiderative

The desiderative mood corresponds to the modal verb “want to”: “He wants to come.” Used e.g. in Japanese or Turkish.


Nec: necessitative

The necessitative mood expresses necessity and corresponds to the modal verbs “must, should, have to”: “He must come.”


Int: interrogative

Verbs in some languages have a special interrogative form that is used in yes-no questions. This is attested, for instance, in the Turkic languages. Celtic languages have it for the copula but not for normal verbs.


Irr: irrealis

The irrealis mood denotes an action that is not known to have happened. As such, it is a roof term for a group of more specific moods such as conditional, potential, or desiderative. Some languages do not distinguish these finer shades of meaning but they do distinguish realis (which we tag with the same feature as indicative, Ind) and irrealis.


Adm: admirative

Expresses surprise, irony or doubt. Occurs in Albanian, other Balkan languages, and in Caddo (Native American from Oklahoma).


Mood in other languages: [ab] [akk] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [cs] [cy] [el] [eme] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gn] [gub] [hbo] [hu] [hy] [it] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [mdf] [myv] [pcm] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [say] [sl] [sv] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [ug] [uk] [urb] [urj]