home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

PronType: pronominal type

Values: Art Dem Emp Exc Ind Int Neg Prs Rcp Rel Tot

This feature typically applies to pronouns, pronominal adjectives (determiners), pronominal numerals (quantifiers) and pronominal adverbs.

Prs: personal or possessive personal pronoun or determiner

See also the Poss feature that distinguishes normal personal pronouns from possessives. Note that Prs also includes reflexive personal/possessive pronouns (e.g. [cs] se / svůj; see the Reflex feature).


Rcp: reciprocal pronoun

This value is used for pronouns that are specifically reciprocal. If a reflexive pronoun can be used to convey reciprocal meaning, it is still labeled as reflexive (PronType=Prs|Reflex=Yes). It is not marked as reciprocal in contexts in which it is used reciprocally.

Reciprocal means that there is a plural subject and every member of the group does the thing described by the predicate to every other member of the group. A reciprocal pronoun is used in the object position to signal such configuration.


Art: article

Article is a special case of determiner that bears the feature of definiteness (in other languages, the feature may be marked directly on nouns).


Int: interrogative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

Note that possessive interrogative determiners (whose) can be distinguished by the Poss feature.


Rel: relative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

Note that in many languages this class heavily overlaps with interrogatives, yet there are pronouns that are only relative, and in some languages (Bulgarian, Hindi) the two classes are distinct.


Exc: exclamative determiner

Exclamative pro-adjectives (determiners) express the speaker’s surprise towards the modified noun, e.g. what in “What a surprise!” In many languages, exclamative determiners are recruited from the set of interrogative determiners. Therefore, not all tagsets distinguish them.


Dem: demonstrative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

These are often parallel to interrogatives. Some tagsets might also distinguish a separate feature of distance (here / there; [es] aquí / ahí / allí).


Emp: emphatic determiner

Emphatic pro-adjectives (determiners) emphasize the nominal they depend on. There are similarities with reflexive and demonstrative pronouns / determiners.


Tot: total (collective) pronoun, determiner or adverb


Neg: negative pronoun, determiner or adverb

Negative pronominal words are distinguished from negating particles and from words that inflect for polarity (verbs, adjectives etc.) Those words do not use PronType=Neg, they use Polarity=Neg instead. See the Polarity feature for further details.


Ind: indefinite pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

Note that some tagsets might further subclassify this category to distinguish “some” from “any” etc. Such distinctions are not part of universal features but may be added in language-specific extensions.


PronType in other languages: [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [bor] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gn] [gub] [gun] [hu] [hy] [it] [ka] [kpv] [ky] [la] [myu] [pcm] [qpm] [sga] [sl] [sv] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urj] [xav] [zh]