home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

aux:pass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a form of the auxiliary verb být “to be” used to construct the periphrastic passive voice (in any tense or in the infinitive).

Kennedy byl zabit . \n Kennedy was killed .
aux:pass(zabit, byl)
aux:pass(killed, was)
Kennedy bude zabit . \n Kennedy will-be killed .
aux:pass(zabit, bude)
aux:pass(killed, will-be)
Kennedy netušil , že jeho osudem je být zabit . \n Kennedy did-not-anticipate that his fate is to-be killed .
aux:pass(zabit, být)
aux:pass(killed, to-be)

Note that the passive participle may be also used as nominal predicate with copula. Hence it may be difficult to distinguish a passive construction from a copula construction. The former focuses on the process while the latter emphasizes the result.

Smlouva byla podepsána v Bílém domě . \n Contract was signed in White House .
aux:pass(podepsána, byla)
aux:pass(signed, was)
Smlouva byla podepsána červeným inkoustem . \n Contract was signed in-red ink .
cop(podepsána, byla)
cop(signed, was)

aux:pass in other languages: [cs] [de] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [gd] [gsw] [it] [no] [pa] [pt] [qpm] [ro] [ru] [sv] [u] [vi] [yue] [zh]