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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Sanskrit UFAL

Language: Sanskrit (code: sa)
Family: Indo-European, Indic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.4 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Puneet Dwivedi, Daniel Zeman, Erica Biagetti.

Repository: UD_Sanskrit-UFAL
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.13

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: fiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Sanskrit-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [zeman (æt) ufal • mff • cuni • cz]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


A small Sanskrit treebank of sentences from Pañcatantra, an ancient Indian collection of interrelated fables by Vishnu Sharma.

Annotation of this treebank started as a student internship project at ÚFAL, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague.

The Sanskrit text is also available from Wikisource and from the Sanskrit Documents website; note however that the exact wording at these sources sometimes differs.

We were only able to add syntactic annotation to a tiny fraction of Pañcatantra, namely to the preface about creation of Pañcatantra, and to the beginning of the first section called Mitrabheda.


The Sanskrit Reader by Gérard Huet was of immense help during the segmentation, lemmatization and morphological analysis of the text.

Statistics of UD Sanskrit UFAL

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview