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This page pertains to UD version 2.

PART: particle


Particles are function words that must be associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning and that do not satisfy definitions of other universal parts of speech (e.g. adpositions, coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions or auxiliary verbs). Particles may encode grammatical categories such as negation, mood, tense etc. Particles are normally not inflected, although exceptions may occur.

Note that the PART tag does not cover so-called verbal particles in Germanic languages, as in give in or end up. These are adpositions or adverbs by origin and are tagged accordingly ADP or ADV. Separable verb prefixes in German are treated analogically.

Note that not all function words that are traditionally called particles in Japanese automatically qualify for the PART tag. Some of them do, e.g. the question particle か / ka. Others (e.g. に / ni, の / no) are parallel to adpositions in other languages and should thus be tagged ADP.

In general, the PART tag should be used restrictively and only when no other tag is possible. The the language-specific documentation should list the words classified as PART in the given language.



PART in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cs] [da] [en] [et] [fi] [fr] [ga] [grc] [hu] [hy] [it] [ja] [kpv] [myv] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tr] [uk] [u] [urj] [yue] [zh]