home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Act Antip Bfoc Cau Dir Inv Lfoc Mid Pass Rcp

Voice is typically a feature of verbs. It may also occur with other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, adverbs), depending on whether borderline word forms such as gerunds and participles are classified as verbs or as the other category.

For Indo-European speakers, voice means mainly the active-passive distinction. In other languages, other shades of verb meaning are categorized as voice.

Act: active or actor-focus voice

The subject of the verb is the doer of the action (agent), the object is affected by the action (patient). This label is also used for the actor-focus voice of Austronesian languages.

Examples

Mid: middle voice

Between active and passive, needed e.g. in Ancient Greek or Sanskrit. The subject is both doer and undergoer in a sense: he is acting upon himself.

Examples

(source)

Rcp: reciprocal voice

In a plural subject, all members are doers and undergoers, acting upon each other.

Examples

Pass: passive or patient-focus voice

The subject of the verb is affected by the action (patient). The doer (agent) is either unexpressed or it appears as an oblique dependent or an object of the verb. This label is also used for the patient-focus voice of Austronesian languages.

Examples

Antip: antipassive voice

In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive P argument is demoted to an oblique dependent and the ergative A argument takes the absolutive form, thus transforming a transitive clause into intransitive.

Examples

Lfoc: location-focus voice

The subject of the verb indicates location or direction, while the doer and the undergoer/theme are coded as objects.

Examples

Bfoc: beneficiary-focus voice

The subject of the verb indicates the beneficiary, while the doer and the undergoer/theme are coded as objects.

Examples

Dir: direct voice

Used in direct-inverse voice systems, e.g. in Algonquian languages of North America. Direct means that the argument that is higher in salience hierarchy is the subject. Example hierarchy: human 1st person – 2nd – 3rd – non-human animate – inanimate.

Examples

Inv: inverse voice

Used in direct-inverse voice systems, e.g. in Algonquian languages of North America. Inverse voice marking means that the argument lower in the hierarchy functions as subject.

Examples

Cau: causative voice

Causative forms of verbs are classified as a voice category because, when compared to the basic active form, they change the number of participants and their mapping on semantic roles. (See, e.g., the documentation of the METU Sabanci treebank (page 26).) Note that this is a feature of verbs. There are languages that have also the causative case of nouns.

Examples


Voice in other languages: [bg] [cs] [en] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hu] [hy] [it] [ru] [sv] [tr] [u] [uk] [urj]