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This page pertains to UD version 2.


Language: Latin (code: la)
Family: Indo-European, Italic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Marco Passarotti, Marinella Testori, Daniel Zeman, Berta González Saavedra, Flavio Massimiliano Cecchini.

Repository: UD_Latin-ITTB
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: nonfiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Latin-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [zeman (æt) ufal • mff • cuni • cz]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion


Latin data from the Index Thomisticus Treebank. Data are taken from the Index Thomisticus corpus by Roberto Busa SJ, which contains the complete work by Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274; Medieval Latin) and by 61 other authors related to Thomas.


author = {Gamba, Federica and Zeman, Daniel},
title = {Latin Morphology through the Centuries: Ensuring Consistency for Better Language Processing},
journal = {Proceedings of the Ancient Language Processing Workshop associated with the 14th International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing RANLP 2023},
year = {2023},
address = {Varna, Bulgaria},
url = {https://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/biblio/attachments/2023-gamba-p3787387064232511302.pdf}

author = {Gamba, Federica and Zeman, Daniel},
title = {Universalising Latin Universal Dependencies: a harmonisation of Latin treebanks in UD},
journal = {Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW, GURT/SyntaxFest 2023)}},
year = {2023},
address = {Washington, DC, USA},
url = {https://aclanthology.org/2023.udw-1.2/}

author = {Cecchini, Flavio Massimiliano and Passarotti, Marco and Marongiu, Paola and Zeman, Daniel},
title = {Challenges in Converting the \emph{Index Thomisticus} treebank into Universal Dependencies},
journal = {Proceedings of the Universal Dependencies Workshop 2018 (UDW 2018)},
year = {2018},
address = {Brussels, Belgium}

author = {Passarotti, Marco and Dell’Orletta, Felice},
title = {Improvements in parsing the index thomisticus treebank. Revision, combination and a feature model for medieval Latin},
journal = {Training},
volume = {2},
pages = {61--024},
year = {2010}

Statistics of UD Latin ITTB

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview