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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Form: Form

Form has been introduced as a language specific feature for Irish. It covers both the morphology of direct/indirect relative markers, and initial mutation.

Direct: direct

Direct relatives represent the relative marker a in the following contexts:


(Relativisers where mark:prt applies)

Relative pronouns that represent a missing subject or object in the relative clause

Cases of a that are regarded as Pronouns instead of particles (according to FGB https://www.teanglann.ie/ga/fgb/a)

Indirect: indirect

Indirect relatives represent the relative marker a in the following contexts:


Relative pronouns that represent a missing oblique (PP head)

Resumptive pronouns, whereby the element which is represented is actually still present in the relativised clause

Possessive relativisers - where the a represents the missing possessor in the relativised clause

One of the characteristics of Irish is its tendency for initial mutation (eclipsis and lenition) to occur in certain circumstances. This is triggered by the preceding word and affects the spelling of nouns, adjectives and verbs. Nouns in Irish are divided into classes according to the way they are inflected to form the genitive singular. There are five such noun-classes or declensions. (The Christian Brothers, 1994)

Ecl: eclipsis

This feature occurs when the initial consonant or vowel of a word is eclipsed by a prefixing consonant. This is either a voiced consonant for voiceless consonants, (e.g. /tʲ/ → /dʲ/, /k/ → /g/) or a nasalised consonant for voiced consonants (e.g. /dʲ/ → /nʲ/, /g/ → /ŋ/). Vowels are eclipsed by adding n- or t-.

Not every consonant can experience eclipsis. The consonants that can be eclipsed in Irish are: p, b, t, d, c, g and f.

Eclipsis will happen in a number of environments:


Emp: emphatic

The emphatic form is a special form a word takes to mark emphasis in Irish.


Len: lenition

Lenition is by far the most common means of initial mutation in the treebank. When lenited, h is added immediately after the initial consonant.

These are some of the environments that trigger lenition:


HPref: h-prefix

When two vowels come together in Irish, a h-prefix is inserted before the second vowel in order to simplify pronunciation.


VF: Vowel form

Vowel form is an indicator of spelling changes that occur in copular verbs when followed by a word that begins with a vowel or a lenited consonant.


Form in other languages: [ga] [gd] [gv] [ko] [la]