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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Naija NSC

Language: Naija (code: pcm)
Family: Creole

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Bernard Caron, Emmett Strickland, Marine Courtin, Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Chika Kennedy Ajede, Emeka Onwuegbuzia, Samson Tella.

Repository: UD_Naija-NSC
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: spoken

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Naija-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [kim (æt) gerdes • fr]. Development of the treebank happens in the UD repository but not directly in the final CoNLL-U files. You may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch but you have to go to the folder called not-to-release and locate the source files there. Contact the treebank maintainers if in doubt.

Annotation Source
Lemmas assigned by a program, not checked manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


A Universal Dependencies corpus for spoken Naija (Nigerian Pidgin).

The corpus is based on dialogues and monologues and comprises 9,242 sentences and 140,729 tokens.

Sentences are annotated with the following metadata :


The treebank was created within the NaijaSynCor project, directed by Bernard Caron and funded by the ANR, the French National Research Agency.

This corpus is a pilot for the larger corpus elaborated as part of the NaijaSynCor Project (Projet-ANR-16-CE27-0007). Its main aim is to elaborate and test the annotation and procedures that are used in the ANR-project. It will be part of a larger 500kW corpus that will be projected on prosodic and information structures and analysed for sociolinguistics variation (http://naijasyncor.huma-num.fr/).

The pilot corpus was recorded in various locations in Ibadan (Nigeria) by Bukola Babalola and Opeyemi Lewis. It was transcribed, translated and tagged manually using Elan-Corpa (http://llacan.vjf.cnrs.fr/res_ELAN-CorpA_en.php) by Folakemi Ladoja, Emeka Onwuegbuzia, Biola Oyelere and Samson Tella under the supervision of Bernard Caron. It was converted to CONLL by Mourad Aouini. First annotations were done by Marine Courtin and Sandra Bellato, who developed the guidelines under the supervision of Sylvain Kahane, Bernard Caron, and Kim Gerdes.The final Universal dependencies annotations have been manually checked by Chika Kennedy Ajede, Emeka Onwuegbuzia, and Samson Tella under the supervision of Bernard Caron using the processing chain developed by Kim Gerdes and Bruno Guillaume, based on the Arborator (https://arborator.ilpga.fr) and Grew (http://grew.fr). Marine Courtin, Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Kirian Guillier, Sylvain Kahane, Mariam Nakhlé, Yuchen Song, Emmett Strickland, Manying Zhang have helped in the correction process.

Statistics of UD Naija NSC

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview