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This page pertains to UD version 2.

punct: punctuation

This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause, if punctuation is being retained in the typed dependencies. Note that symbols tagged SYM are not punctuation and cannot be attached via the punct relation.

Go home !
punct(Go, !)

Tokens with the relation u-dep/punct always attach to content words (except in cases of ellipsis) and can never have dependents. Since punct is not a normal dependency relation, the usual criteria for determining the head word do not apply. Instead, we use the following principles:

  1. A punctuation mark separating coordinated units is attached to the following conjunct.
  2. A punctuation mark preceding or following a dependent unit is attached to that unit.
  3. Within the relevant unit, a punctuation mark is attached at the highest possible node that preserves projectivity.
  4. Paired punctuation marks (e.g. quotes and brackets, sometimes also dashes, commas and other) should be attached to the same word unless that would create non-projectivity. This word is usually the head of the phrase enclosed in the paired punctuation.
We have apples , pears , oranges , and bananas . obj(have, apples) conj(apples, pears) conj(apples, oranges) conj(apples, bananas) cc(bananas, and) punct(pears, ,-4) punct(oranges, ,-6) punct(bananas, ,-8)
Der Mann , den Sie gestern kennengelernt haben , kam wieder . punct(kennengelernt, ,-3) punct(kennengelernt, ,-9) punct(kam, .)
A.K.A. , AKA , or a\/k\/a may refer to : “ Also known as ” , used to introduce pseudonyms , aliases , etc. ( Compare f.k.a. for “ formerly known as ” . ) punct(AKA, ,-2) punct(a/k/a, ,-4) punct(refer, :) punct(known-13, “-11) punct(known-13, ”-15) punct(used, ,-16) punct(aliases, ,-21) punct(etc., ,-23) punct(Compare, (-25) punct(Compare, )-35) punct(known-31, “-29) punct(known-31, ”-33) punct(Compare, .-34)

See also examples at parataxis.

punct in other languages: [bej] [cop] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [eu] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hy] [it] [ja] [kk] [no] [pt] [ru] [sv] [tr] [u] [urj] [yue] [zh]