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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Ottoman Turkish DUDU

Language: Ottoman Turkish (code: ota)
Family: Turkic, Southwestern

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.14 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Enes Yılandiloğlu.

Repository: UD_Ottoman_Turkish-DUDU
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: news, fiction, nonfiction, bible, government

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Ottoman Turkish-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [enes • yilandiloglu (æt) helsinki • fi]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


An Ottoman Turkish dependency treebank annotated in UD style. Created by Enes Yılandiloğlu.

This project comprises 85 sentences that are firstly automaticaly annotated via machamp (Van der Goot et al., 2021). During the training phase, multiple modern Turkish UD treebanks were used. and then manually corrected in a systematic way. Randomly shuffled sentences were written between 14th to 20th century in various genres such as fiction, news, article, registry record, and religious preach. Unfortunately, for this version, the genres can not be told apart by sentence ids. The order of the sentences is chronology based rather than genre based, the earliest written sentence is at the top. In this treebank, Ottoman Turkish transcription alphabet is used.


I am immensely grateful to Fatma Elcan for her tremendous help in providing me with sentences.

Statistics of UD Ottoman Turkish DUDU

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview