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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Evident: evidentiality

Values: Fh Nfh

Evidentiality is the morphological marking of a speaker’s source of information (Aikhenvald, 2004). It is sometimes viewed as a category of mood and modality.

Many different values are attested in the world’s languages. At present we only cover the firsthand vs. non-firsthand distinction, needed in Turkish. It distinguishes there the normal past tense (firsthand, also definite past tense, seen past tense) from the so-called miş-past (non-firsthand, renarrative, indefinite, heard past tense).

Aikhenvald also distinguishes reported evidentiality, occurring in Estonian and Latvian, among others. We currently use the quotative Mood for this.

Note: Evident is a new universal feature in UD version 2. It was used as a language-specific feature (under the name Evidentiality) in UD v1 for Turkish.

Fh: firsthand


Nfh: non-firsthand



Evident in other languages: [ab] [bor] [dar] [gub] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [tr] [u]