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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Italian ISDT

Language: Italian (code: it)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.0 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Cristina Bosco, Alessandro Lenci, Simonetta Montemagni, Maria Simi.

Repository: UD_Italian-ISDT
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.13

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: legal, news, wiki

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Italian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [simi (æt) di • unipi • it]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


The Italian corpus annotated according to the UD annotation scheme was obtained by conversion from ISDT (Italian Stanford Dependency Treebank), released for the dependency parsing shared task of Evalita-2014 (Bosco et al. 2014).

ISDT is a resource annotated according to the Stanford dependencies scheme (de Marneffe et al. 2008, 2013a, 2013b, 2014), obtained through a semi-automatic conversion process starting from MIDT (the Merged Italian Dependency Treebank). MIDT, in turn, is the result of a previous effort in the direction of improving interoperability of data sets available for Italian by harmonizing and merging two existing dependency–based resources, differing both in corpus composition and adopted annotation schemes, namely:

The details of the harmonization and conversion process leading to MIDT are discussed in (Bosco, Montemagni, Simi, 2012). The Stanford annotation scheme, obtained from an enriched version of MIDT, was adapted to the specificity of the Italian language. We refer to (Bosco, Montemagni, Simi, 2013 and 2014) for a discussion.


We wish to thank all of the contributors to the original annotation efforts, as well as the supporting organizations, i.e. the Institute for Computational Linguistics “A. Zampolli”, the University of Pisa, and the University of Torino. Thanks go to Chiara Alzetta and Giulia Venturi for the good work in defining the error detection methodology and the manual revision / correction of automatically identified errors in Version 2.1.

Statistics of UD Italian ISDT

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Reflexive Passive

Relations Overview