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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Maghrebi Arabic French Arabizi

Language: Maghrebi Arabic French (code: qaf)
Family: Code switching

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.12 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Arij Riabi, Farah Essaidi, Amal Fethi, Menel Mahamdi, Djamé Seddah.

Repository: UD_Maghrebi_Arabic_French-Arabizi
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: nonfiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Maghrebi Arabic French-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [djame • seddah (æt) gmail • com]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


A Universal Dependencies corpus for a romanized user-generated content variety of Algerian, a North-African Arabic dialect known for its frequent usage of code-switching. We added to the UD annotations NER annotations extending the French Treebank NER scheme (Sagot et al, 2012) and Offensive language classification and corrected many of the translations (still ongoing).

This repository includes dataset presented in the paper “Enriching the NArabizi Treebank: A Multifaceted Approach to Supporting an Under-Resourced Language

The first version of the NArabizi Corpus was presented in (Seddah & al., 2020), with extensive parsing results presented in (Riabi et al, 2021).


Statistics of UD Maghrebi Arabic French Arabizi

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Reflexive Verbs

Relations Overview