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This page pertains to UD version 2.


Language: Italian (code: it)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.5 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Alessandra T. Cignarella, Cristina Bosco, Manuela Sanguinetti.

Repository: UD_Italian-TWITTIRO
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: social

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Italian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [cigna (æt) di • unito • it]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


TWITTIRÒ-UD is a collection of ironic Italian tweets annotated in Universal Dependencies. The treebank can be exploited for the training of NLP systems to enhance their performance on social media texts, and in particular, for irony detection purposes.

TWITTIRÒ-UD has been created by enriching a resource originally developed for training and testing irony detection systems, also exploited as a benchmark for the Italian irony detection task held in EVALITA 2018 (Cignarella et al., 2018c). The treebank comprises both the fine-grained annotation for irony applied in Karoui et al. (2017), and the morphological and syntactic information encoded by the UD format.

The original corpus consists of 1,424 tweets (28,387 tokens). The syntactic annotation process was carried out through alternating steps of automatic scripting and manual revision, and finally with some out-of-domain parsing experiments. Parsing results also underwent a manual revision by two independent annotators.

In order to meet the requirements of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), entered into force on May 2018, the resource content has been pseudonymized, by substituting original tweet IDs and user names.

:warning: An overall amount of 527 tweets overlaps with PoSTWITA-UD. The overlapping content however has been distributed such that it ends up in the same partition in both treebanks.


Statistics of UD Italian TWITTIRO

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Reflexive Passive

Relations Overview