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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Turkish IMST

Language: Turkish (code: tr)
Family: Turkic, Southwestern

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.3 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Utku Türk, Şaziye Betül Özateş, Büşra Marşan, Salih Furkan Akkurt, Çağrı Çöltekin, Gülşen Cebiroğlu Eryiğit, Memduh Gökırmak, Hüner Kaşıkara, Umut Sulubacak, Francis Tyers.

Repository: UD_Turkish-IMST
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Genre: nonfiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Turkish-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [memduhg (æt) gmail • com]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


The UD Turkish Treebank, also called the IMST-UD Treebank, is a semi-automatic conversion of the IMST Treebank (Sulubacak&Eryiğit, 2018; Sulubacak et al., 2016).

The UD Turkish Treebank, also called the IMST-UD Treebank, is a semi-automatic conversion of the IMST Treebank (Sulubacak & Eryiğit, 2018; Sulubacak et al., 2016), which is itself a reannotated version of the METU-Sabancı Turkish Treebank (Oflazer et al., 2003). All three treebanks share the same raw data, a set of 5635 sentences collected from daily news reports and novels.

Validation errors in the dataset were corrected by BOUN TABILAB/TULAP team in UD v2.11 release.

The sentences were reorganized by Furkan Akkurt for v2.13 based on the original METU Turkish Corpus (MTC) so that sentences from the same document once again form a contiguous segment in the original order. Document ids were added and documents are no longer split between train, dev and test (that is, the data split had to be exceptionally changed between releases). Moreover, the new data split is compatible with the data split of the ITCC dataset in CorefUD 1.1, which is partially based on the same documents from MTC. The scripts used to do the reorganization are kept here.


The IMST-UD Treebank is licensed under Creative Commons (BY-NC-SA 4.0). A summary for the terms of the license is given below (see here for more information). Under the terms of the license,

If you would use this treebank in any form of publication, please cite the following papers:

-Umut Sulubacak, Gülşen Eryiğit. Implementing Universal Dependency, Morphology and Multiword Expression Annotation Standards for Turkish Language Processing. Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences, DOI: 10.3906/elk-1706-81):1–23. May 2018.

-Umut Sulubacak, Memduh Gökırmak, Francis Tyers, Çağrı Çöltekin, Joakim Nivre, and Gülşen Eryiğit. Universal Dependencies for Turkish. In Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Osaka, Japan, December 2016.

This treebank follows a set of morphosyntactic annotation guidelines based on those established by Çağrı Çöltekin, and later revised and restructured by Memduh Gökırmak, Francis Tyers, and Umut Sulubacak. The conversion from the IMST Treebank (available from http://tools.nlp.itu.edu.tr/Datasets) was done by Umut Sulubacak. The contributors would also like to thank Birsel Karakoç, Hüner Kaşıkara, and Tuğba Pamay for their discussions and insights.

Statistics of UD Turkish IMST

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview