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This page pertains to UD version 2.


Language: Xibe (code: sjo)
Family: Tungusic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.9 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: He Zhou, Juyeon Chung, Elena Klyachko, Francis Tyers, Sandra Kübler.

Repository: UD_Xibe-XDT
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: grammar-examples, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Xibe-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [hzh1 (æt) iu • edu]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


The UD Xibe Treebank is a corpus of the Xibe language (ISO 639-3: sjo) containing manually annotated syntactic trees under the Universal Dependencies. Sentences come from three sources: grammar book examples, newspaper (Cabcal News) and Xibe textbooks.

The treebank was manually annotated for lemmas, universal part-of-speech, morphological features and dependency relations.


If you use this treebank in your work, please cite:

title={Universal Dependency Treebank for Xibe},
author={Zhou, He and Chung, Juyeon and Kübler, Sandra and Tyers, Francis},
booktitle={Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2020)},

Statistics of UD Xibe XDT

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview