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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Case: case

Values: Abe Abl Acc Adp Apr AprEgr AprEla AprIll AprIne AprPrl AprTer AprTra Car Cns Com Cmp Dat Egr Ela Gen Ill Ine Ins Loc Nom Prl Prp Ter Tra

Case is an inflectional feature for nouns, pronouns, adjectives and numerals in Komi-Zyrian.
Komi-Zyrian has 25 inflectional cases.

Abe: abessive

The abessive case is used primarily in the nominal phrase, and it expresses the absence the locus. The abessive in <тӧм> should be distinguished from the caritive <тӧг>, which has a predicative clause range. Earlier this has been refered to as PrivMod (privative modifier).

Examples

Abl: ablative

The ablative case expresses possessor of object.

Examples

Acc: accusative

In Komi-Zyrian the specifically marked accusatives mark direct objects of verbs. This tends to be the marking of direct objects high in the hierarchies of identifiability and animacy.

Examples

Adp: adpositional

The adpositional case indicates special form of third person pronouns with adpositions. This is analogous to the PrepCase found in cs Pre prepositional case, which is realized in pronouns there. Although the forms <сы> and <на> are standard, there are occasional instances of <сійӧ> and <найӧ> occuring before adpositions.

Examples

Apr: approximative

The approximative case expresses general direction toward a place.

Examples

AprEgr: approximative egressive

The approximative egressive case expresses from the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

AprEla: approximative elative

The approximative elative case expresses departure from the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

AprIll: approximative illative

The approximative illative case expresses approach to the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

AprIne: approximative inessive

The approximative inessive case expresses location in the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

AprPrl: approximative prolative

The approximative prolative case expresses passing by the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

AprTer: approximative terminative

The approximative terminative case expresses reaching as far as the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

AprTra: approximative transitive

The approximative transitive case expresses going through the general vicinity of a place.

Examples

Car: caritive

The caritive case corresponds to the English preposition without.

Examples

Cmp: comparative

The comparative case corresponds to the English than as a marker of the standard of comparison.

Examples

Cns: consecultative

The consecultative case expresses acquisition, corresponding to the English preposition after.

Examples

Com: comitative / associative

The comitative (also called associative) case corresponds to English “together with …”

Examples

Dat: dative

The dative case expresses transfer to someone.

Examples

Egr: egressive

The egressive case expresses general locative source.

Examples

Ela: elative

The elative case expresses direction out of something.

Examples

Gen: genitive

Prototypical meaning of genitive is that the noun phrase somehow belongs to its governor; it would often be translated by the English preposition of. In Komi-Zyrian the genitive can be used to mark the possessor of a non-direct object.

Examples

Ill: illative

The illative case expresses direction into something.

Examples

Ine: inessive

The inessive case expresses location inside of something.

Examples

Ins: instrumental

The instrumental case is affixed to the noun defining the entity used as an instrument to do something.

Examples

Loc: prepositional case

The Komi locative case has a adnominal range and traditionally is considered an derivational suffix for adjectives. It is productively applied to both singular and plural stems. The locative case in <са> should be distinguished from the inessive case in <ын>, which takes the predicative clause range.

The Russian prepositional case is used in Russian speech, and is accompanied by a Lang=Rus in Misc.

Examples

Nom: nominative / direct

The base form of the noun, typically used as citation form (lemma).

Examples

Prl: prolative

The prolative case may indicate a pathway through a three-dimensional or a two-dimensional space in <ӧд>. In the central dialects it is often distinguished from the transitive.

Examples

Prp: proprietive

The proprietive case is the ‘having’ case in <а>. It tends to be an adnominal case in range but may also occur in the predicative clause range.

Examples

Ter: terminative / terminal allative

The terminative case specifies where something ends in space or time. Similar case in Basque is called terminal allative (Spanish adlativo terminal).

Examples

Tra: transitive

The transitive case may indicate a point a path passes through in two-dimensional space. In the central dialects it is often distinguished from the prolative in nouns.

Examples


Case in other languages: [am] [apu] [bej] [bg] [cs] [en] [ess] [et] [fi] [ga] [grc] [gub] [hu] [hy] [kmr] [koi] [kpv] [mdf] [myv] [pcm] [pt] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tpn] [tr] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]