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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Case: case

Values: Acc Com Dat Nom

A case is each of the different forms a nominal word can take to express a syntactic function in a sentence. Cases are characteristic (but not exclusive) of many Indo-European languages.

In Spanish, the closest equivalent that has been preserved is in the pronouns. In UD Spanish morphology, three cases are distinguished: Nominative, Dative and Accusative.

Nom: nominative

The Nominative case is used when the pronoun functions as the subject of the sentence, which is the person, place, or thing doing the action. Examples of this in Spanish are pronouns like “yo” (I), “tú” (you), and “nosotros” (we).


Acc: accusative

The Accusative case is used for direct objects, which directly receive the action of the verb. In Spanish, the pronouns used in the accusative case are “me” (me), “te” (you), “lo” (him, it), and “la” (her, it), among others.


Dat: dative

Dative case is used for indirect objects, which indirectly receive the action of the sentence. The Spanish pronouns for the dative case are “me” (me), “te” (you), “le” (him, her, it), and “nos” (us), among others.


Com: comitative

The comitative case is normally not morphological in Spanish and the corresponding meaning is expressed by the preposition con “with”. However, three pronouns fuse with the preposition and create a form that is different from other case forms of the pronoun and that can be described as comitative.


Acc,Nom: nominative or accusative

In UD Spanish treebanks, certain pronouns are annotated with the double case value Acc,Nom, which signifies that these pronouns can function in both the Accusative (as direct objects) and Nominative (as subjects).

This group of pronouns includes “nosotros/nosotras” (we), “él/ella/ello” (he/she/it), and “ellos/ellas” (they). These pronouns can be used as the subject of a sentence, but they can also receive the action of a verb directly, which would typically be the function of an object. This dual function is why they are annotated with both the Nom and Acc case values.

For example, consider the sentence Nosotros vemos a ellos. Here, nosotros is the subject of the sentence (Nominative case), and ellos is the direct object (Accusative case). In this sentence, both “nosotros” and “ellos” would be tagged with Case=Acc,Nom, indicating their potential to function in either case, depending on the sentence structure.


Case in other languages: [am] [apu] [arr] [bej] [bg] [cs] [el] [eme] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [fi] [ga] [gn] [grc] [gub] [hu] [hy] [ka] [kmr] [koi] [kpv] [ky] [mdf] [myu] [myv] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]