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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Case: case

Case is used for nominal parts-of-speech (nouns, proper nouns, numerals, adjectives and pronouns).

Nom: nominative / direct

The base form of the noun, typically used as citation form (lemma). In many languages this is the word form used for subjects of clauses. If the language has only two cases, which are called “direct” and “oblique”, the direct case will be marked Nom.

Examples

Acc: accusative / oblique

Perhaps the second most widely spread morphological case. In many languages this is the word form used for direct objects of verbs. If the language has only two cases, which are called “direct” and “oblique”, the oblique case will be marked Acc.

Examples

Abs: absolutive

Some languages (e.g. Basque) do not use nominative-accusative to distinguish subjects and objects. Instead, they use the contrast of absolutive-ergative.

The absolutive case marks subject of intransitive verb and direct object of transitive verb.

Examples

Dat: dative

This is the word form used for recipient arguments of verbs of transfer.

Examples

Gen: genitive

Examples

Loc: locative

The locative case often expresses location in space or time, which gave it its name. As elsewhere, non-locational meanings also exist and they are not rare. Uralic languages have a complex set of fine-grained locational and directional cases (see below) instead of the locative. Even in languages that have locative, some location roles may be expressed using other cases (e.g. because those cases are required by a preposition).

In Slavic languages this is the only case that is used exclusively in combination with prepositions (but such a restriction may not hold in other languages that have locative).

Examples

Ins: instrumental / instructive

The role from which the name of the instrumental case is derived is that the noun is used as instrument to do something (as in [cs] psát perem “to write using a pen”). Many other meanings are possible, e.g. in Czech the instrumental is required by the preposition s “with” and thus it includes the meaning expressed in other languages by the comitative case.

Examples

Dis: distributive

The distributive case conveys that something happened to every member of a set, one in a time. Or it may express frequency.

Examples

Ess: essive / prolative

The essive case expresses a temporary state, often it corresponds to English “as a …” A similar case in Basque is called prolative and it should be tagged Ess too.

Examples

Tra: translative / factive

The translative case expresses a change of state (“it becomes X”, “it changes to X”). Also used for the phrase “in language X”. In the Szeged Treebank, this case is called factive.

Examples

Ine: inessive

The inessive case expresses location inside of something.

Examples

Ill: illative

The illative case expresses direction into something.

Examples

Ela: elative

The elative case expresses direction out of something.

Examples

Ade: adessive

The adessive case expresses location at or on something. The corresponding directional cases are allative (towards something) and ablative (from something).

Examples

Note that adessive is used to express location on the surface of something in Finnish and Estonian, but does not carry this meaning in Hungarian.

All: allative

The allative case expresses direction to something (destination is adessive, i.e. at or on that something).

Examples

Abl: ablative

Prototypical meaning: direction from some point.

Examples

Sup: superessive

Used, chiefly in Hungarian, to indicate location on top of something or on the surface of something.

Examples

Sub: sublative

The sublative case is used in Finno-Ugric languages to express the destination of movement, originally to the surface of something (e.g. “to climb a tree”), and, by extension, in other figurative meanings as well (e.g. “to university”).

Examples

Del: delative

Used, chiefly in Hungarian, to express the movement from the surface of something (like “moved off the table”). Other meanings are possible as well, e.g. “about something”.

Examples

Tem: temporal

The temporal case is used to indicate time.

Examples

Ter: terminative / terminal allative

The terminative case specifies where something ends in space or time.

Examples

Cau: causative / motivative / purposive

Noun in this case is the cause of something. In Hungarian it also seems to be used frequently with currency (“to buy something for the money”) and it also can mean the goal of something.

Examples


Case in other languages: [am] [apu] [bej] [bg] [cs] [en] [ess] [et] [fi] [ga] [grc] [gub] [hu] [hy] [kmr] [koi] [kpv] [mdf] [myv] [pcm] [pt] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tpn] [tr] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]