home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

Case: case

Values: Core: Nom Erg Dat
Non-core: Gen Ins Ess Voc

Case is an inflectional feature of nouns, proper nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals and verbs that mark agreement with nouns or verbs.

Case can also be a lexical feature of adpositions and describe the case meaning that the adposition contributes to the nominal in which it appears.

Case helps specify the role of the noun phrase in the sentence. In Georgian, with regards to noun-verb concord, nominative and dative cases mark either subject or oblique grammatical functions, while the ergative case always marks subjects. In addition to their use to mark the agent of an action, the nominative and dative cases are also used to mark the patient.

On the level of morphosyntactic features the case expressed morphologically is always represented by bound morphemes (suffixes).

Nom: nominative case

The base form of the noun, typically used as citation form (lemma). This is the word form used for subject or object of clauses.


Erg: ergative case

The ergative case marks subject of transitive verb.


Dat: dative case

The dative case marks subject or object of clauses.


Gen: genetive case

Prototypical meaning of genitive is that the noun phrase somehow belongs to its governor. In Modern Georgian the genitive case is generally used to mark the dependent of a nominal, while in Old Georgian it was also used as a base for secondary cases (so-called ‘Suffixaufnahme’) to indicate its attributive relationship together with agreement with other nouns in number and case.


Ins: instrumental case

The instrumental case reflects that the noun is used as instrument to do something.


Ess: essive case

The forms in the essive case express a relation of place, time, manner, etc. and meet the often-given definition of adverbs as words or phrases used to modify and/or qualify nouns, adjectives and verbs. The language-specific term used in Georgian is adverbial case.


Voc: vocative case

The vocative case is a special form of noun used to address someone.


Case in other languages: [am] [apu] [arr] [bej] [bg] [cs] [el] [eme] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [fi] [ga] [gn] [grc] [gub] [hu] [hy] [ka] [kmr] [koi] [kpv] [ky] [mdf] [myu] [myv] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]