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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Case: case

Values: Abe Abl Com Cmp Dat Ela Gen Ill Ine Lat Loc Nom Prl Tem Tra

Case is a grammatical category determined by the syntactic or semantic function of a noun or pronoun. Discussion:

Case is an inflectional feature of nouns and other parts of speech (adjectives, numerals, pronouns, postpositions) that are noun phrase heads.

Case helps specify the role of a complex noun phrase in a sentence. Here, the term complex noun phrase is used to provide a syntactic delimitation and thereby distinguish between noun phrases versus single-word adverbs in adverbial phrases. The various cases have different distributions as basic or indefinite cases (1–15) in relation to their definite singular (-10), definite plural (-13) and possessive (-12) paradigms.

Erzya morphology distinguishes fifteen cases: Abe, Abl, Com, Cmp, Dat, Ela, Gen, Ill, Ine, Lat, Loc, Nom, Prl, Tem, Tra (this ordering is alphabetical, some authors use different names or even numbers for identifying these cases.)

Abe: abessive

Examples

Abl: ablative

In Erzya the ablative case is used to express (1) standard of comparison, (2) theme of discussion, (3) manipulation point of the direct object, (4) in quantification of the object with verbs of consumption eat, drink and breath, (5) beginning of path, (6) it has a considerative use denoting something given in exchange for something else…

Examples

Com: comitative

Examples

Cmp: comparative

In Erzya the comparative case is used to indicate `(about) the size of X’.

Examples

Dat: dative

Examples

Ela: elative

Examples

Gen: genitive

The genitive in Erzya indicates the possessor. It is also one of the morphological markers for direct object and adpositional complement. In the indefinite declension the genitive, when attached to words with material source or origin referents, the resulting form is considered by many grammarians as an adjectival derivation form.

Examples

Ill: illative

Examples

Ine: inessive

In Erzya the inessive is used to express (1) location inside of something, (2) being in direct contact with, (3) use as an instrument

Examples

Lat: lative

Examples

Loc: locative

Examples

Nom: nominative

The base form, typically used as a citation form (lemma). The nominative form is used in the morphosyntactic funtion of subject and predicate. While the definite declension usually indicates topic (subject) function, the indefinite declension often appears in presentation of new information, such as in existential sentences. Possessor indexing on the nominative allows for both interpretations.

The indefinite nominative singular is one of the complement forms for postpositional constructions; the others being the indefinite and definite genitive forms.

The indefinite nominative singular and plural are used as indefinite object forms; the others being the indefinite and definite genitive forms.

Examples

Prl: prolative

In Erzya the prolative is used to express multipoint reference. (1) When used with verbs of motion, this would make its use similar to the perlative in Warlpiri. (2) When the verbal construction expresses something stationary, it express distributive location. (3) When it refers to an end point, it acts as a distributive goal. (4) When it refers to approximate location, it serves as a marker for non-precise location…

Examples

Tem: temporalis

Examples

Tra: transative

In Erzya the transitive can be used in both the noun phrase and the verbal clause. In the verbal clause it can express (1) change of state and (2) essive temporary state. (3) In the noun phrase it marks a potential change of state.

Examples


Case in other languages: [am] [apu] [arr] [bej] [bg] [cs] [eme] [en] [ess] [et] [fi] [ga] [gn] [grc] [gub] [hu] [hy] [kmr] [koi] [kpv] [mdf] [myu] [myv] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]