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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Romanian SiMoNERo

Language: Romanian (code: ro)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.5 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Maria Mitrofan, Verginica Barbu Mititelu.

Repository: UD_Romanian-SiMoNERo
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.9

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: medical

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Romanian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [maria (æt) racai • ro, vergi (æt) racai • ro]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


SiMoNERo is a medical corpus of contemporary Romanian.

SiMoNERo contains texts from three medical subdomains: cardiology, diabetes, endocrinology. The texts come from scientific books, journal articles and blog posts, but predominant are those coming from books. The texts display the following levels of annotation: tokenization, POS tagging, lemmatization, syntactic parsing and medical Named Entities (of the following types: ANAT (body parts), CHEM (Chemicals and Drugs), DISO (disorders), and PROC (procedures)). All levels, except for the syntactic one, are hand validated. The description of the corpus creation (excluding the syntactic annotation) is presented in Mitrofan et al. (2019). The syntactic parsing was made with the NLP Cube (https://github.com/adobe/NLP-Cube) system.


We are grateful to the following texts providers: http://federatiaromanadiabet.ro (accessed November 2016), https://rmj.com.ro/ (accessed November 2016), https://societate-diabet.ro/ (accessed November 2016), http://pentrudiabet.ro (accessed November 2016).


Mititelu, V.B. and Mitrofan, M., The Romanian Medical Treebank - SiMoNERo. Proceedings of the The 15th Edition of the International Conference on Linguistic Resources and Tools for Natural Language Processing – ConsILR-2020ISSN 1843-911X, p.7-16, 2020.

Maria Mitrofan, Verginica Barbu Mititelu, Grigorina Mitrofan, MoNERo: a Biomedical Gold Standard Corpus for the Romanian Language, in Proceedings of the BioNLP workshop, Florence, Italy, 1 August 2019, p. 71-79, Association for Computational Linguistics (https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-5008).

Statistics of UD Romanian SiMoNERo

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Reflexive Verbs

Reflexive Passive

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview