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This page pertains to UD version 2.

nsubj: nominal subject

A nominal subject is a nominal which is the syntactic subject of a clause. It is a first argument of the predicate with highest syntactic status. That is, it is in the position that passes typical grammatical test for subjecthood, and this argument is the more agentive, the do-er, or the proto-agent of the clause. In a typical case, the subject relation connects a personal verb in the active voice with a nominal dependent (proto-agent of a clause) in the Nominative Case.

Ленинградскую симфонию написал Шостакович . \n Leningrad Symphony wrote Shostakovich .
nsubj(написал, Шостакович)
nsubj(wrote, Shostakovich)

In Russian, the dependent can also be expressed by the nominal in the Genitive case, includings contexts under negation or quantifier constructions:

Денег хватает . \n (We) have (enough) money  .
nsubj(хватает, Денег)
nsubj(have, money)
Мест почти не осталось . \n (There are) almost no places left  .
nsubj(осталось, Мест)
nsubj(left, places)
Все больше людей берут кредиты . \n More and more people are taking loans .
nsubj(берут, людей)
nsubj(taking, people)

In rare cases, the nominal subject is marked by the Vocative case or is a head the prepositional distributive or approximative construction:

Спаси вас Господи ! \n God save you !
nsubj(Спаси, Господи)
nsubj(save, God)
Каждому полагается по бублику . \n For each person, a bagel is-supposed-to-be-given .
nsubj(полагается, бублику)
nsubj(is-supposed-to-be-given, bagel)
В деревне проживает около 70 семей . \n About 70 families live in the village .
nsubj(проживает, семей)
nsubj(live, families)

The governor of the nsubj relation might not always be a verb, see the following examples with praedicatives, adjectives, numerals, nouns (including a noun marked by a preposition) as a head of the copula construction. Copula can be expressed or omitted in Russian in such constructions.

Машины нет . \n There-is-no car .
nsubj(нет, Машины)
nsubj(There-is-no, car)
Вы вправе уйти . \n You have-the-right to leave .
nsubj(вправе, Вы)
nsubj(have-the-right, You)
Закон должен работать . \n The law must work .
nsubj(должен, Закон)
nsubj(must, law)
Как она хороша ! \n How beautiful she is !
nsubj(хороша, она)
nsubj(beautiful, she)
Мальчиков трое . \n There-are three boys .
nsubj(трое, Мальчиков)
nsubj(three, boys)
Магазин был в двух шагах от дома . \n The store was two steps from our house .
nsubj(шагах, Магазин)
nsubj(steps, store)

(See csubj for cases when the subject is clausal. See nsubj:pass and csubj:pass for when the subject is not the proto-agent argument due to valence changing operations. If the subject is a copular clause whose predicate is itself a clause, nsubj:outer is used.)

nsubj in other languages: [bej] [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [eu] [fi] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gd] [gsw] [hy] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kmr] [ky] [mr] [myv] [no] [pa] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [uz] [vi] [yue] [zh]