home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

nsubj: nominal subject

A nominal subject is the syntactic subject of a clause. In Punjabi, this is protypically the nominative (unmarked) argument to an intransitive or non-perfective transitive verb, or ergative argument to a perfective-aspect transitive verb. Some dialects also only mark the ergative on the third person. See also cop.

ਮੈਂ ਗਿਆ \n I went
nsubj(ਗਿਆ, ਮੈਂ)
nsubj(went, I)

Some less prototypical, but equally valid nominal subjects exist too. Dative, locative, and genitive subjects exist and have properties such as control of reflexives which qualify them for subject hood.

Dative subjects

These tend to be dependents of experiencer verbs.

ਸਾਨੂੰ ਗੁੱਸਾ ਆਇਆ \n to.us anger came
nsubj(ਆਇਆ, ਸਾਨੂੰ)
nsubj(came, to.us)
obj(ਆਇਆ, ਗੁੱਸਾ)
obj(came, anger)
ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਸ਼ੋਰ ਸੁਣਾਈ ਦਿੱਤਾ \n to.you noise hearing gave
nsubj(ਦਿੱਤਾ, ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ)
compound:lvc(ਦਿੱਤਾ, ਸੁਣਾਈ)
obj(ਦਿੱਤਾ, ਸ਼ੋਰ)
nsubj(gave, to.you)
compound:lvc(gave, hearing)
obj(gave, noise)

Locative subjects

These are mostly copular clauses, indicating the existence of something somewhere. Other languages can use a dummy pronoun (e.g. English “there is x in y”).

ਘਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਪੈਸੇ ਹਨ \n home in money are
nsubj(ਪੈਸੇ, ਘਰ)
nsubj(money, home)
case(ਘਰ, ਵਿੱਚ)
case(home, in)
cop(ਪੈਸੇ, ਹਨ)
cop(money, are)

Genitive subjects

When clauses are the subject of a verb, they generally have their own subject in genitive case.

ਉਸਦਾ ਇਹ ਕਹਿਣਾ ਠੀਕ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੀ \n his this saying right not was
nsubj(ਕਹਿਣਾ, ਉਸਦਾ)
nsubj(saying, his)
obj(ਕਹਿਣਾ, ਇਹ)
obj(saying, this)
csubj(ਠੀਕ, ਕਹਿਣਾ)
csubj(right, saying)
cop(ਠੀਕ, ਸੀ)
cop(right, was)

nsubj in other languages: [bej] [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [eu] [fi] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gd] [gsw] [hy] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [kmr] [ky] [mr] [myv] [no] [pa] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [uz] [vi] [yue] [zh]