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This page pertains to UD version 2.

VerbForm: form of verb or deverbative

Values: Conv Fin Inf Part PartRes Sup

The feature is used exclusively with verbs and auxiliaries. Participles are treated as verbs and not adjectives in Old East Slavic treebanks.

Fin: finite verb

Rule of thumb: if it has non-empty Mood, it is finite. In East Slavic this applies to indicative and imperative forms.


Inf: infinitive

Infinitive is the citation form of verbs. It is also used with the auxiliary быти to form periphrastic future tense, and it appears as the argument of modal and other verbs.


Sup: supine

Supine is a rare verb form that is used instead of infinitive as the argument of the motion verbs.


Part: participle

Participle is a non-finite verb form that shares properties of verbs and adjectives. Old East Slavic has two types of participles:

Participles inflect for Gender and Number but not for Person.


PartRes: resultative participle, l-form

This is a special case of participles. The value PartRes reflects the use of the l-form as transitional from perfective/resultative participle in Old Russian to the simple past form in Modern Russian, Belarussian and Ukrainian. Just as other verb forms, l-forms differentiate between the imperfective and perfective aspect losing their original resultative meaning in Old and Middle East Slavic period. Since the feature Aspect is taken, we use a language-specific value VerbForm=PartRes for l-forms. We also use the value Tense=Past for them to make annotations consistent in Middle and Modern treebanks.

Resultative participles inflect for Gender and Number but not for Person.


Conv: converb, transgressive

The converb, also called transgressive, adverbial participle or gerund, is a non-finite verb form that shares properties of verbs and adverbs.

Imperfective verbs form present converb, meaning “while doing”.

Perfective verbs form past converb, meaning “having done”.



In the TOROT treebank, l-forms are annotated as VerbForm=Part and Aspect=Res. In the Old Russian-RNC and Ruthenian treebanks , l-forms are annotated as VerbForm=PartRes, Tense=Past, and Aspect=Imp or Aspect=Perf, depending their aspect.

Converbs are annotated as participles in TOROT. (These forms originate in the Proto-Slavic participles but are interpreted as adverbial forms in later texts, see Zalizniak 2004, Lyashevskaya 2010).

VerbForm in other languages: [ab] [abq] [akk] [bej] [bg] [bm] [cs] [cu] [cy] [el] [eme] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gub] [gun] [hbo] [hu] [hy] [it] [ka] [kpv] [ky] [la] [mdf] [myv] [orv] [pcm] [qpm] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urj]