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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Cau Pass Rcp Trans

Voice is a morphological feature of verbs, describing alternations in valency and mapping between syntactic arguments and semantic roles. In Amharic UD, voice is treated as derivational morphology, meaning that different voice forms of one verb stem have different lemmas; Voice is thus a lexical feature.

The basic active voice is currently not annotated: instead of having Voice=Act, the verb omits the Voice feature completely.


Trans: transitive causative voice

An originally intransitive verb with a causative prefix becomes transitive. The morphology is different from how causatives are formed from transitive verbs, therefore we use a separate, language-specific value of Voice. Verbs that are naturally transitive (without the causative prefix) are not annotated with Voice=Trans.


Cau: causative voice

An originally transitive verb with a causative prefix becomes ditransitive. The morphology is different from how causatives are formed from intransitive verbs, therefore we use different Voice values for the two types. Even transitive verbs that have been derived as causatives from intransitive verbs can be further causativized.


Pass: passive voice

The subject of the verb is affected by the action (patient). The doer (agent) is either unexpressed or it appears as an oblique dependent of the verb. Some passive verbs are semantically reflexive, e.g., taţţäbä “he washed himself” (from aţţäbä “he washed”).


Rcp: reciprocal voice

In a plural subject, all members are doers and undergoers, acting upon each other.


Voice in other languages: [abq] [am] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bor] [ceb] [cs] [el] [eme] [en] [fi] [fr] [gn] [gub] [ha] [hu] [hy] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [myu] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [sv] [tl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj] [xcl]