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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Act Pass Cau CauPass

Voice is a feature of verbs that helps map the traditional syntactic functions, such as subject and object, to semantic roles, such as agent and patient.

Act: active voice

The subject of the verb is typically the doer of the action (agent) that affects the object (patient) by the action.


Pass: mediopassive voice (passive, middle, reflexive, etc.)

In Classical Armenian, the tag Pass covers a wide range of intransitive and valency-decreasing meanings such as passive, middle, and reflexive. The subject of the verb typically either spontaneousely undergoes an change of state, or is affected by the action carried out by an agent facutlatively expressed by an oblique complement.


Cau: derived causative: active forms


CauPass: derived causative: mediopassive forms


Voice in other languages: [abq] [am] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bor] [ceb] [cs] [el] [eme] [en] [fi] [fr] [gn] [gub] [ha] [hu] [hy] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [myu] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [sv] [tl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj] [xcl]