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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Cau Mid Pass Rcp

Voice is typically a feature of verbs and verbal affixes/clitics categorized as auxiliaries.

Mid: middle voice

Between active and passive. The subject is both doer and undergoer in a sense: he is acting upon himself.


Rcp: reciprocal voice

In a plural subject, all members are doers and undergoers, acting upon each other.


Pass: passive or patient-focus voice

The subject of the verb is affected by the action (patient). The doer (agent) is not unexpressed in Beja.


Cau: causative voice

Causative expresses a subject that is the cause of the action done by a distinct agent and is described by the verbal affix categorized as auxiliaries.


Voice in other languages: [abq] [am] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bor] [ceb] [cs] [el] [eme] [en] [fi] [fr] [gn] [gub] [ha] [hu] [hy] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [myu] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [sv] [tl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj] [xcl]