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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Voice: voice

Values: Cau CauPass CauPassRcp CauRcp Mid Pass PassRcp Rcp

Voice is a feature of verbs that helps map the traditional syntactic functions, such as subject and object, to semantic roles, such as agent and patient.

(This feature, as defined currently, cannot correctly handle voice features on Tatar verbs.) The above combinations (of camel-case voice values) are a temporary solution to indicate “multiple voice” features, but they are certainly not the best way to indicate these features. See #197 and #125 for the discussion.

Pass: passive voice

Passive voice demotes a subject to an oblique argument, and promotes an object to the subject position.

Examples

PassRcp: combination of passive and reciprocal voices

This language-specific value indicates that a verb with a reciprocal suffix is passivized.

Examples

Rcp: reciprocal voice

A reciprocal verb describes an event in which two agents (or groups of agents) perform the same action upon each other.

The reciprocal is expressed by the suffix -ыш/еш however, the verb roots that can become reciprocal is limited.

Examples

Cau: causative voice

In causative constructions the subject is the entity “causing” the action. It generally translate to English as ‘cause/make/have/let/allow’ someone to perform action described by the main verb.

Examples

CauPass: passive causative voice

This language-specific value indicates that a verb has been first causativized, then passivized. The meaning is “the subject was caused (by somebody) to do the action.”

Examples

CauRcp: causative reciprocal voice

This language-specific value indicates that a verb with a reciprocal suffix is causativized. The meaning is “the subject was caused (by somebody) to do the action.”

It describes an event in which two agents (or groups of agents) perform the same action upon each other and another entity causes the action.

Examples

CauPassRcp: causative reciprocal passive voice

This language-specific value indicates that a verb with a reciprocal suffix is passivized and causativized. The meaning is “the subject was caused (by somebody) to do the action.”

It describes an event in which two agents (or groups of agents) perform the same action upon each other and another entity causes the action.

Examples

Mid: middle voice

This voice often has the same morpheme as the passive voice, but the middle voice does not reflect passivization. In the middle voice, the subject is both the actor and the undergoer.

Examples


Voice in other languages: [am] [arr] [bej] [bg] [ceb] [cs] [eme] [en] [fi] [fr] [gn] [gub] [hu] [hy] [myu] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [sv] [tl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj]