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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Zaar Autogramm

Language: Zaar (code: say)
Family: Afro-Asiatic, West Chadic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.11 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Sylvain Kahane, Bruno Guillaume, Bernard Caron, Katharine Jiang.

Repository: UD_Zaar-Autogramm
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: grammar-examples

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Zaar-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [bruno • guillaume (æt) inria • fr]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS not available
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


A Universal Dependencies corpus for Zaar (aka Sayanci), a member of the Chadic branch of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. The language is mainly spoken by about 200,000 speakers in the Bogoro and Tafawa Balewa local governments of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

The treebank is an automatic conversion of the SUD_Zaar-Autogramm, which was extracted from Bernard Caron’s corpus in Elan format (https://corpafroas.huma-num.fr/Archives/corpus.php).

Sentences are annotated with the following metadata:


This treebank was produced as part of the Autogramm ANR project. With special thanks to Bruno Guillaume for the conversion from SUD to UD, Sylvain Kahane and Christian Chanard. A special tribute must be paid to Marvellous S. Davan, who transcribed and translated the Zaar Corpus, and met an untimely death in Bauchi at the age of 40.

Statistics of UD Zaar Autogramm

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview