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This page pertains to UD version 2.

case: case marking

The case relation is used for most prepositions in Irish. Prepositions are treated as dependents of the noun they introduce in an “extended nominal projection”. Thus, contrary to SD, UD abandons treating a preposition as a mediator between a modified word and its object. The case relation aims at providing a uniform analysis of prepositions and case in morphologically rich languages.

See obl:prep for labelling of prepositional pronouns, and xcomp:pred for prepositional predicates.

Prepositions have many functions in Irish.



PPs can precede or follow the verb they modify, or follow the noun they modify.

(i) Sa bhliain sin, bhuaigh siad an Chorn `In that year, they won the Cup’

(ii) Bhuaigh siad an Chorn sa bhliain sin `They won the Cup in that year’

(iii) An teach sa chathair `The house in the city’

Progressive Aspectuals

The preposition ag is used with verbal nouns to form progressive aspectual phrases in Irish.

Tá sí ag rith ‘She is (at) running’

Tá sí ag rith \n Is she at running
case(rith, ag)


Prepositions are also used in phrasal constructions to denote ownership or a state of being.

Tá airgead ag na daoine ‘The people have money’ (lit. Money is at the people)

Tá airgead ag na daoine \n Is money at the people
case(daoine, ag)

Tá brón ar an gcuairteoir `The visitor is sorry’ (lit. sorrow is on the visitor)

Tá brón ar an gcuairteoir \n Is sorrow on the visitor
case(gcuairteoir, ar)


Oblique arguments are also introduced by case markers and are therefore labelled case.

Tá muintir Chorcaí an-mhíshásta le Fianna Fáil ‘The people of Cork are very unhappy with Fianna Fáil’

Tá muintir Chorcaí an-mhíshásta le Fianna Fáil \n Be people Cork very-unhappy with Fianna Fáil
obl(Tá, Fianna)
case(Fianna, le)

Tá port amháin á chanadh ag an Uachtarán Chirac ó ceapadh é. ‘President Chirac has been singing the same old song since he was appointed’

Tá port amháin á chanadh ag an Uachtarán Chirac ó ceapadh é \n Is tune one being to_sing by the President Chirac from was-appointed he.
obl(chanadh, Uachtarán)
case(Uachtarán, ag)

case in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [et] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gsw] [gub] [hy] [it] [ja] [ka] [kk] [ky] [no] [pcm] [pt] [qpm] [ro] [ru] [sl] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [yue] [zh]