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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Ancient Greek PROIEL

Language: Ancient Greek (code: grc)
Family: Indo-European, Greek

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Dag Haug.

Repository: UD_Ancient_Greek-PROIEL
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: bible, nonfiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Ancient Greek-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [daghaug (æt) ifikk • uio • no]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


UD_Ancient_Greek-PROIEL is converted from the Ancient Greek data in the PROIEL treebank, and consists of the New Testament plus selections from Herodotus.

The Ancient Greek PROIEL treebank is based on the Ancient Greek data from the PROIEL treebank, which is maintained at the Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Arts and Ideas at the University of Oslo. The conversion is based on the 20180408 release of the PROIEL treebank available from https://github.com/proiel/proiel-treebank/releases. The original annotators are acknowledged in the files available there. The conversion code is available in the Rubygem proiel-cli, https://github.com/proiel/proiel-cli.

The treebank contains most of the New Testament plus selections from Herodotus’ Histories. The original annotation guidelines are available at http://folk.uio.no/daghaug/syntactic_guidelines.pdf.


The data have been automatically converted to the UD scheme by Dag Haug. Thanks to all the original annotators!

Statistics of UD Ancient Greek PROIEL

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview