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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Welsh CCG

Language: Welsh (code: cy)
Family: Indo-European, Celtic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.4 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Johannes Heinecke, Francis Tyers.

Repository: UD_Welsh-CCG
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: grammar-examples, wiki, nonfiction, fiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Welsh-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [johannes • heinecke (æt) orange • com]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


UD Welsh-CCG (Corpws Cystrawennol y Gymraeg) is a treebank of Welsh, annotated according to the Universal Dependencies guidelines.

The main part of the annotated sentences come from the Welsh Wikipedia. Some sentences have been taken from the Corpus of the Welsh Assembly, from websites of Welsh speaking organisations (Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, University of Wales), News (y Golwg, local Welsh language newspapers, BBC Cymru) and Welsh language blogs. A few example sentences are taken from Welsh Grammars (Gramaded Cymraeg Cyfoes: Gareth King, Modern Welsh).


If you use this treebank in your work, please cite:

author = {Heinecke, Johannes and Tyers, Francis M.},
title = {{Development of a Universal Dependencies treebank for Welsh}},
year = {2019},
booktitle = {{Proceedings of the Celtic Language Technology Workshop}},
publisher = {European Association for Machine Translation},
address = {Dublin},
pages = {21--31},
url = {https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-6904},

Statistics of UD Welsh CCG

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview