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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Ancient Greek Perseus

Language: Ancient Greek (code: grc)
Family: Indo-European, Greek

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Giuseppe G. A. Celano, Daniel Zeman.

Repository: UD_Ancient_Greek-Perseus
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 2.5

Genre: fiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Ancient Greek-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [celano (æt) informatik • uni-leipzig • de]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This Universal Dependencies Ancient Greek Treebank consists of an automatic conversion of a selection of passages from the Ancient Greek and Latin Dependency Treebank 2.1

The current UD treebank derives from texts taken from the Ancient Greek and Latin Dependency Treebank 2.1 available at

The original data have been semi-automatically annotated. More precisely, morphological annotation and lemmatization have been performed with the help of the Morpheus morphological analyzer, while syntactic annotation has been done manually. The following guidelines have been followed:

Further details can be found at:

The release contains parts of the following works:

author work
Aesop Fabulae
Aeschylus Agamemnon
Aeschylus Eumenides
Aeschylus Libation Bearers
Aeschylus Prometheus Bound
Aeschylus Persians
Aeschylus Seven Against Thebes
Aeschylus Supplian Women
Anonymous Hymn to Demeter
Apollodorus Library
Athenaeus The Deipnosophists
Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca Historica
Herodotus Histories
Hesiod Shield of Heracles
Hesiod Theogony
Hesiod Works and Days
Homer Iliad
Lysias Against Pancleon
Lysias Alcybiades 1
Lysias Alcybiades 2
Lysias On the Murder of Eratosthenes
Plutarch Alcibiades
Plutarch Lycurgus
Plybius Histories
Pseudo-Homer Hymn to Demeter
Sophocles Ajax
Sophocles Antigone
Sophocles Electra
Sophocles Oedipus Tyrannus
Sophocles Trachinae
Thucydides Histories


The current UD data have been converted by Giuseppe G. A. Celano.

The Ancient Greek and Latin treebank is a result of a joint effort between Tufts University and Leipzig University (DH) under the supervision of Prof. Gregory Crane. Current editors of the treebank are Giuseppe G. A. Celano, Gregory Crane, and Bridget Almas.

Authors of the annotations are (in alphabetical order):

Giuseppe G. A. Celano, J. F. Gentile, Robert Gorman, Vanessa Gorman, Jordan Hawkesworth, Yoana Ivanova, Tovah Keynton, Florin Leonte, Alex Lessie, Daniel Lim Libatique, Meg Luthin, Francesco Mambrini, George Matthews, Jack Mitchell, Molly Miller, Jessica Nord, Sean Stewart, Anthony D. Yates, Polina Yordanova, and Sam Zukoff.

Further details can be found at:

Statistics of UD Ancient Greek Perseus

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview