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This page pertains to UD version 2.

PronType: pronominal type

Art: articles

Pronominal articles in Irish include the definite articles an or na. These articles can combine with prepositions to create new forms, e.g., an + de = den (“from the”), an + faoi = faoin (“under the”), na + i = sna (“in the”).


Dem: demonstrative

Irish demonstrative pronouns indicate nearness to the speaker, whether this is a difference of time or space. There are three main degrees of closeness: near to the speaker (seo, “this/these”), of some distance to the speaker (sin, “that/those”), and of greater distance to the speaker (siúd, úd, “that/those over there”).


Emp: emphatic

Personal pronouns (including prepositional pronouns) can take an emphatic suffix (se/sa) depending on whether the root has a broad or slender final vowel. The suffix -an is also used in some cases (leosan “with them”, eisean “him”, seisean “he” )


Ind: indefinite

Indefinite pronouns are used to refer to unspecified quantities or persons.


Int: interrogative

The interrogative pronouns can be used to specify or question a specific noun. The pronouns used for inanimate things include cén, cad, céard, cathain, conas and , while can be used for persons, places or things. These interrogative pronouns can be combined with other nouns to form common question phrases, such as cén fáth (“what reason”), and cé mhéad (“how many”)


Prs: person


Rel: relative

The relative pronoun in Irish is a (or ), and is used to introduce a relative clause or adverbial clause. It can combine with other words, such as the possible combinations with the present form of the verb “to be”, as in atá or atáimse, with the copula is, as in ab, or with the preposition le “with”, as in lena.


PronType in other languages: [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [bor] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gn] [gub] [gun] [hu] [hy] [it] [ka] [kpv] [ky] [la] [myu] [pcm] [qpm] [sga] [sl] [sv] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urj] [xav] [zh]