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This page pertains to UD version 2.

PronType: pronominal type

A wide variety of pronouns, and particles and other parts-of-speech with pronominal characteristics can be identified in Old Irish.

Ana: anaphoric

The anaphoric pronoun, suide, in its various forms, is used in Old Irish to refer back to something which has already been mentioned.


Art: articles

Pronominal articles in Old Irish include all forms of the definite article, whether they form close compounds with preceding prepositions or not.


Dem: demonstrative

Demonstrative particles, so and sin, are enclitics comparable to the demonstrative pronouns of other languages. These have substantival force when used alone, amal sin “like that”, or with the article, insin “that”. Following other parts of speech they serve to specify something in particular, _in lebor “the book” but in lebor sothis book”.


Emp: emphatic

Old Irish has emphasising particles, however, as they inflect for person and number they meet the criteria to be considered pronouns in Universal Dependencies, and are POS-tagged as such. These enclitic particles are used to emphasise pronouns, verbal subjects and objects, and the pronominal elements of conjugated prepositions (prepositional pronouns).


Ind: indefinite

Old Irish has a specific independent pronoun, nech/, “someone/something”, and several other independent pronominals.


Int: interrogative

Interrogative pronouns are used when asking questions.


Prs: personal

Several types of personal pronoun are used in Old Irish, including independent pronouns, infixed pronouns, suffixed pronouns, and possessive pronouns. Conjugated prepositions (prepositional pronouns) also have a personal pronominal element.


Rel: relative

The copula in Old Irish has relative forms and can inflect for person and number.


Void: void pronoun

A semantically empty pronominal form, d, occurs within the verbal complex following the conjunctions cía “although” and “if”, if no infixed pronoun already occurs there. It is infixed at the same place that a regular infixed pronoun would be expected, and is supported by the semantically empty conjunct particle no if necessary.


PronType in other languages: [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [bor] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gn] [gub] [gun] [hu] [hy] [it] [ka] [kpv] [ky] [la] [myu] [pcm] [qpm] [sga] [sl] [sv] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urj] [xav] [zh]