home edit page issue tracker

This page pertains to UD version 2.

Mood: mood

Ind: indicative

The indicative mood is used to make statements.


Opt: optative

The optative mood is used to make commands and suggestions (also imperative for 2nd person subjects).


Int: interrogative

The interrogative mood is used to ask yes/no questions with question words, such as when and why, or other types of questions without question words.


Ptc: participial

In the main clause, the participial mood is used to convey the meaning of a vivid past, the events of which have usually not been witnessed by the speaker. In subordinate clauses, the participial mood has a causal meaning.


Obl: participial-oblique

The participial-oblique mood is often - though apparently not always - used to form an observational construction (…) In some cases, however, it appears that the participial-oblique mood is used to express merely a casual linking in time, without the element of observation. (Jacobson, p. 121)

[W]hen used in the subordinate clause, the main clause describes an event focused on because it is unexpected or contains an element of surprise. As a result, the Participial Oblique moods are more accurately translated as ‘it was the fact (in the past) that…, but…’; ‘until now…’; ‘now that…’, and the main clause often contains interjections expressing excitement, particles meaning ‘already’, or the postbase -fte- l-pete- ‘to apparently V’. In addition, the clause in a Participial Oblique mood often contains particles such as taagken ‘next; and then’ or legan ‘and so’, emphasizing continuity with preceding events. Thus, the Participial Oblique moods prevent the focus of attention from being shifted toward the subordinate clause and away from the continuity of events or story line described by the main clause. They are used in vivid narrative, such as traditional stories, but also in conversation. (de Reuse 1994, p. 50)


Sbr: intransitive subordinative

The intransitive subordinative mood is translated as ‘V-ing’ or ‘after V-ing’. When it is used in a subordinate clause, the subject of the verb is the same as the subject of the verb in the main clause. It can be used instead of the indicative mood (or the optative mood for requests or commands) in the main clause in hurried conversation or narrative.


Prc: precessive

The precessive mood is translated as ‘before one V-ed or V-s’.


Cnc: concessive

The concessive mood is translated as ‘even though one V-s’.


Cn1: consequential I

The consequential I mood is translated as ‘when one V-ed’.


Cn2: consequential II

The consequential II mood is translated as ‘while one was V-ing’.


Ctm: contemporative

The contemporative mood is translated as ‘whenever one Vs’.


Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is translated as ‘if or when one Vs’.



Mood in other languages: [ab] [akk] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [cs] [cy] [el] [eme] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gn] [gub] [hbo] [hu] [hy] [it] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [mdf] [myv] [pcm] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [say] [sl] [sv] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [ug] [uk] [urb] [urj]