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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Mood: mood

Values: Cnd CndGen CndPot Des Gen GenNec GenPot Imp Ind Nec Opt Pot Prs Sub

Mood expresses the modality, a speaker’s perspective, in finite verbs. Turkish verbs may carry a wide range of mood information. Different moods are indicated by a number of suffixes, which also interact with tense and aspect of the verb.

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.


Gen: generalized modality

Turkish modal system includes a distinction between statements of direct experience (Ind) and statements with a more general or theoretical nature (Göksel & Kerslake, 2005, p.295). This mood is typically marked by the aorist marker on verbs, and with -DIr suffix on nominal predicates.

(NOTE: this mood interacts with evidentiality. One may consider the status of evidentiality expressed by this suffix to be “inferred”. Hence, an alternative way of marking this could be Evidential=Infer, or something similar)


Imp: imperative

In Turkish imperatives are expressed by lack of any tense/aspect/modality marker. The form of imperative may indicate second or third person plural/singular. Note that, forms other than second person singular may indicate a wish rather than a command, so may be marked as Opt (see below).


Prs: persuasive (new, not in UD)

Turkish has a particular form of imperative, where the request is not an order, but an attempt to persuade.


Opt: optative

Optative suffix (-(y)A) in Turkish typically combines with first person markers and expresses a suggestion. The use with second/third person markers express a wish, but it is rare. With third person singular agreement the imperative form may also express a wish or suggestion, and more common than -(y)A forms.


Nec: necessitative

This expresses some sort of necessity (must/should/have to in English).


GenNec: general or hypothetical necessitative

The necessitative suffix can be combined with a suffix of general modality.


Pot: potential

The suffix -Abil may indicate ability or possibility. These moods are normally distinct, and the same verb may express both at the same time (see the last example below). However, it is also very difficult to disambiguate between these two moods.


GenPot: general or hypothetical potential

When the potential suffix is combined with the non-past (aorist) suffix, the resulting sentence either is a statement of generalized validity, or a hypothetical statement (Göksel & Kerslake, 2005, p.346).


Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive

The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain. In German, it may be also used to convey the conditional meaning.


Cnd: conditional

This expresses conditionality. It is the primary means of forming conditionals in Turkish (‘if …’). The suffix responsible for this mood is -sA. The suffix is ambiguous between Cnd and Des (see below).


CndGen: general (non-past) conditional

When the conditional suffix is combined with the non-past (aorist) suffix, the resulting sentence gets a future or generalized predictive reading.


CndPot: conditional potential

The potential modality can be combined with the conditional suffix.


Des: desiderative

This mood expresses a wish. It shares the same form as the Cnd mood. It may be disambiguated by particles (keşke: desire, eğer: condition) or by the context. For example, desires do not work well with fixed time references. In general it is difficult to automatically disambiguate between these two moods.



Mood in other languages: [ab] [akk] [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [cs] [cy] [el] [eme] [en] [es] [ess] [et] [fi] [fr] [ga] [gd] [gn] [gub] [hbo] [hu] [hy] [it] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [mdf] [myv] [pcm] [qpm] [qtd] [quc] [ru] [say] [sl] [sv] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [ug] [uk] [urb] [urj]