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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Mood: mood

Values: Cnd CndGen CndGenPot CndPot Des DesPot Gen GenNec GenNecPot GenPot GenPotPot Imp Ind Nec NecPot Opt Pot PotPot Prs

Mood expresses the modality, a speaker’s perspective, in finite verbs. Turkish verbs may carry a wide range of mood information. Different moods are indicated by a number of suffixes, which also interact with tense and aspect of the verb.

Similar to the Voice feature, a Turkish verb may have multiple Mood values expressed on a single verb. Currently we concatenate the individual mood values, but this is far from a good solution (see issues #197 and #125 for the discussion).

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.

Examples

Gen: generalized modality

Turkish modal system includes a distinction between statements of direct experience (Ind) and statements with a more general or theoretical nature (Göksel & Kerslake, 2005, p.295). This mood is typically marked by the aorist marker on verbs, and with -DIr suffix on nominal predicates.

(NOTE: this mood interacts with evidentiality. One may consider the status of evidentiality expressed by this suffix to be “inferred”. Hence, an alternative way of marking this could be Evidential=Infer, or something similar)

Examples

Imp: imperative

In Turkish imperatives are expressed by lack of any tense/aspect/modality marker. The form of imperative may indicate second or third person plural/singular. Note that, forms other than second person singular may indicate a wish rather than a command, so may be marked as Opt (see below).

Examples

Prs: persuasive (new, not in UD)

Turkish has a particular form of imperative, where the request is not an order, but an attempt to persuade.

Examples

Opt: optative

Optative suffix (-(y)A) in Turkish typically combines with first person markers and expresses a suggestion. The use with second/third person markers express a wish, but it is rare. With third person singular agreement the imperative form may also express a wish or suggestion, and more common than -(y)A forms.

Examples

Nec: necessitative

This expresses some sort of necessity (must/should/have to in English).

Examples

NecPot: necessitative potential

A combination of the necessitative and potential suffixes yields the meaning of “should be able to”.

Examples

GenNec: general or hypothetical necessitative

The necessitative suffix can be combined with a suffix of general modality.

Examples

GenNecPot: general or hypothetical necessitative potential

Both necessitative and potential can be combined with a suffix of general modality.

Examples

Pot: potential

The suffix -Abil may indicate ability or possibility. These moods are normally distinct, and the same verb may express both at the same time (see PotPot below). However, it is also very difficult to disambiguate between these two moods.

Examples

PotPot: potential expressed twice

The mood we mark as Pot may be expressed multiple times in some verbs, particularly in negative forms. In most cases this expresses ability and possibility at the same time (someting may (not) have potential to happen).

Examples

GenPot: general or hypothetical potential

When the potential suffix is combined with the non-past (aorist) suffix, the resulting sentence either is a statement of generalized validity, or a hypothetical statement (Göksel & Kerslake, 2005, p.346).

Examples

GenPotPot: generallized modality and potential expressed twice

Similar to above, a generalized statement / hypothesis may have both ability and potential expressed.

Examples

CndGenPot: conditional predicate with generallized modality and potential

A generalized statement / hypothesis may also be conditional and express ability or potential.

Examples

Cnd: conditional

This expresses conditionality. It is the primary means of forming conditionals in Turkish (‘if …’). The suffix responsible for this mood is -sA. The suffix is ambiguous between Cnd and Des (see below).

Examples

CndGen: general (non-past) conditional

When the conditional suffix is combined with the non-past (aorist) suffix, the resulting sentence gets a future or generalized predictive reading.

Examples

CndPot: conditional potential

The potential modality can be combined with the conditional suffix.

Examples

Des: desiderative

This mood expresses a wish. It shares the same form as the Cnd mood. It may be disambiguated by particles (keşke: desire, eğer: condition) or by the context. For example, desires do not work well with fixed time references. In general it is difficult to automatically disambiguate between these two moods.

Examples

DesPot: desiderative potential

A combination of the desiderative and potential suffixes yields the meaning of “want to be able to”.

Examples

References


Mood in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cs] [en] [et] [fi] [fr] [ga] [hu] [hy] [it] [kpv] [myv] [pcm] [ru] [sl] [sv] [tr] [u] [uk] [urj]