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This page pertains to UD version 2.


Language: Old French (code: fro)
Family: Indo-European, Romance

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Sophie Prévost, Aurélie Collomb, Kim Gerdes, Isabelle Tellier, Marine Courtin, Alexei Lavrentiev, Céline Guillot-Barbance, Loïc Grobol, Mathilde Regnault.

Repository: UD_Old_French-PROFITEROLE
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: nonfiction, legal, poetry

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Old French-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [sophie • prevost (æt) ens • psl • eu]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas not available
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS annotated manually
Features assigned by a program, not checked manually
Relations assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification


UD_Old_French-PROFITEROLE is an expansion of the previous UD_Old_French-SRCMF (which was a conversion of (part of) the SRCMF corpus (Syntactic Reference Corpus of Medieval French srcmf.org).

UD_Old_French-PROFITEROLE includes the texts of the previous UD_Old_French-SRCMF, plus Old French texts that were annotated in the frame of the PROFITEROLE funded project (Projet ANR-16-CE38-0010, 2017-2022, supervised by Sophie Prévost) Texts were automatically annotated with part-of-speech and dependencies, which are currently running a process of correction. Texs will be released in UD as they are corrected. Middle French texts that were annotated in the PROFITEROLE project are to be found in UD_Middle_French-PROFITEROLE.

UD_Old_French-PROFITEROLE consists in 12 texts spanning from 9th to 13th century. It includes 19765 sentences and 227137 tokens.

Sentences are annotated with the following metadata:

The following table lists the texts used in this treebank:

ID Name of the text Author Tokens Trees
Strasbourg_842_prose Serments de Strasbourg anonymous 131 3
StEulalie_900_verse Séquence de Sainte Eulalie anonymous 212 21
StLegier_1000_verse Vie de saint Léger anonymous 1665 189
StAlexis_1050_verse Vie de saint Alexis anonymous 5662 572
Roland_1100_verse Chanson de Roland anonymous 34803 3890
Lapidaire_mid12_prose Lapidaire en prose anonymous 5494 524
QuatreLivresReis_late12_prose Quatre livres des reis anonymous 15030 1509
BeroulTristan_late12_verse Tristan de Beroul Beroul 32596 3310
TroyesYvain_1180_verse Yvain de Chrestien Chrestien de Troyes 47964 3880
Aucassin_early13_verse_prose Aucassin et Nicolet anonymous 11639 1038
Graal_1225_prose Queste del Saint Graal anonymous 44715 3114
ClariConstantinople_1300_prose Conqueste de COnstantinople Robert de Clari 27226 1715
Total     227137 19765


UD_Old_French-PROFITEROLE results from the UD_Old_French-SRCMF as well as from the automatic annotation (PROFITEROLE project, 2017-2022) of other Old French texts (with the SRCMF corpus being used as a training corpus), which were/are then manually corrected along with the UD guidelines. The contributors to the syntactic part of the PROFITEROLE project were: Prévost, Sophie; Villemonte de la Clergerie, Eric; Regnault, Mathilde; Grobol, Loïc; Crabbé, Benoît; Dehouck, Mathieu; Lavrentiev, Alexei.

UD_Old_French-SRCMF resulted from the conversion of (part of) the SRCMF corpus (Syntactic Reference Corpus of Medieval French srcmf.org). The SRCMF corpus resulted from the SRCMF project which took place in 2008-2012, funded by the ANR (France) and the DFG (Germany), and supervised by Sophie Prévost and Achim Stein.

The SRCMF project consisted in the manual syntactic annotation of 15 texts (251,000 tokens) from the 9th to 13th C. Part-of-speech tags were for most of them retrieved from the already existing tagging of the texts (stemming from: Base de Français Medieval, Lyon, ENS de Lyon, IHRIM Laboratory http://txm.bfm-corpus.org, and the Nouveau Corpus d’Amsterdam http://www.uni-stuttgart.de/lingrom/stein/corpus#nca)

The contributors to the SRCMF project were: Stein, Achim; Prévost, Sophie; Rainsford, Tom; Mazziotta, Nicolas; Bischoff Béatrice; Glikman, Julie; Lavrentiev, Alexei; Heiden, Serge; Guillot-Barbance, Céline; Marchello-Nizia, Christiane.

The whole SRCMF corpus (251,000 tokens) was converted into UD dependencies, but only 172,000 tokens had undergone a significant checking.

The conversion from the original SRCMF annotation to the SRCMF-UD annotation was done automatically both for the POS and the syntactic relations, thanks to a set of elaborated rules. Some 1,200 syntactic relations left unlabelled were then manually annotated (Sophie Prévost), and significant spot-checking occurred, focusing on potential difficulties (e.g. conj relation).

This conversion was achieved by Aurélie Collomb, during an internship funded by lab Lattice (Paris, CNRS, ENS & Université Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3, PSL & USPC), and supervised by Sophie Prévost, Isabelle Tellier and Kim Gerdes. Marine Courtin achieved the deposit of the files, and especially took in charge the validation of the corpus through the successive steps of the process.

A significant review of this initial release has been done on the occasion of the UD 2.6 release by Loïc Grobol and Sophie Prévost in the frame of the ANR PROFITEROLE project in order to improve the compliance of the corpus to UD guidelines. This includes both automatic correction and extensive manual corrections.

A significant import of data from the Base de français medieval has been done by Loïc Grobol, Alexei Lavrentiev and Sophie Prévost on the occasion of the UD 2.9 release. Most notably, this release adds punctuation tokens for most trees as well as around 350 new trees, consisting mostly of averbal sentences and fixes a number of conformity bugs with the UD guidelines. See the full changes in the upstream repository


Statistics of UD Old French PROFITEROLE

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview