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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Bhojpuri BHTB

Language: Bhojpuri (code: bho)
Family: Indo-European, Indic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.5 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Atul Kr. Ojha, Daniel Zeman.

Repository: UD_Bhojpuri-BHTB
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.13

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: nonfiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Bhojpuri-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [shashwatup9k (æt) gmail • com, zeman (æt) ufal • mff • cuni • cz]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


The Bhojpuri UD Treebank (BHTB) is a part of the Universal Dependency treebank project.

The Bhojpuri UD Treebank (BHTB) v2.6 consists of 6,664 tokens(357 sentences). This Treebank is a part of the Universal Dependency treebank project. Initially, it was initiated by me (Atul) at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi during the doctoral research work. BHTB data contains syntactic annotation according to dependency-constituency schema, as well as morphological tags and lemmas. In this data, XPOS is annotated according to Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Part Of Speech (POS) tagset.


Preparation of this treebank was supported by LINDAT/CLARIAH-CZ (grant no. LM2018051) and Khresmoi (grants no. FP7-ICT-2010-6-257528 and MŠMT 7E11042). ÚFAL, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague.


If you use this data, please cite:

author = {Ojha, Atul Kr. and Zeman, Daniel},
title = {Universal Dependency Treebanks for Low-Resource Indian Languages: The Case of Bhojpuri},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the WILDRE5– 5th Workshop on Indian Language Data: Resources and Evaluation},
month = {May},
year = {2020},
address = {Marseille, France},
publisher = {European Language Resources Association (ELRA)},
pages = {33--38},

Other papers/references about the Bhojpui data are:

title={English-Bhojpuri SMT System: Insights from the Karaka Model},
author={Ojha, Atul Kr},
journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.02239},
title={Training \& evaluation of POS taggers in Indo-Aryan languages: a case of Hindi, Odia and Bhojpuri},
author={Ojha, Atul Kr. and Behera, Pitambar and Singh, Srishti and Jha, Girish N},
booktitle={the proceedings of 7th Language \& Technology Conference: Human Language Technologies as a Challenge for Computer Science and Linguistics},

Statistics of UD Bhojpuri BHTB

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview