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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Akkadian RIAO

Language: Akkadian (code: akk)
Family: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.7 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Mikko Luukko, Aleksi Sahala, Sam Hardwick, Krister Lindén.

Repository: UD_Akkadian-RIAO
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Genre: nonfiction, government

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Akkadian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [sam • hardwick (æt) iki • fi]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas assigned by a program, with some manual corrections, but not a full manual verification
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


162 royal inscriptions of four early Neo-Assyrian kings.

The data source for the treebank is 162 royal inscriptions of four early Neo-Assyrian kings: Aššur-dan II (r. 934–912 BCE), Adad-nerari II (r. 911–891 BCE), Tukulti-Ninurta II (r. 890–884 BCE) and Ashurnasirpal II (r. 883–859 BCE). Their inscriptions were published by A. Kirk Grayson in his 1991 volume Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium B.C. I (1114 – 859 B.C.) (Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Assyrian Periods, 2), University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

UD_Akkadian-RIAO is a small treebank which consists of 22 277 words and 1845 sentences. This represents an intact subset of a total of 2211 sentences from the early Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions of the tenth and ninth centuries BCE. These royal inscriptions were extracted from Oracc (Open Richly Annotated Cuneiform Corpus; http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/riao/), where all Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions are lemmatized word-for-word. The language of the corpus is Standard Babylonian, with occasional Assyrianisms, whereas “Akkadian” is the umbrella term for both Assyrian and Babylonian. The treebank was manually annotated following the UD annotation guidelines.


This treebank was carried out as part of the Centre of Excellence in Ancient Near Eastern Empires (ANEE) in cooperation with FIN-CLARIN and the Language Bank of Finland, taking place in Helsinki, and funded by the Academy of Finland. We would like to thank Niek Veldhuis (Berkeley), the initiator of the project, and David Bamman (Berkeley), who helped in setting up the first attempt for annotation on the Brat rapid annotation tool. For making this project possible, we are also indebted to Karen Radner, Jamie Novotny and Nathan Morello (all three LMU, Munich) and to Grant Frame and Steve Tinney (both UPenn, Philadelphia).


Mikko Luukko, Aleksi Sahala, Sam Hardwick, Krister Lindén. 2020. Akkadian Treebank for Early Neo-Assyrian Royal Inscriptions. In Proceedings of the 19th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT), Düsseldorf 2020. (https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.tlt-1.11.pdf)

Statistics of UD Akkadian RIAO

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview