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Aspect: aspect

Aspect is a feature that specifies duration of the action in time, whether the action has been completed, ongoing etc.

In Turkish a set of verbal morphemes alter the Aspect feature of a verb. These morphemes often affect the Tense and Mood features as well. The mapping between the suffixes and the Aspect values may sometimes be non-trivial.

The following describes the values used for Aspect together with the suffixes typically introduce the defined Aspect value. See tr-overview/special-syntax for the discussion of mapping relevant verbal suffixes to Tense, Aspect and Mood values.

Perf: perfect aspect

The action has been / will have been completed.

Examples

Prog: progressive aspect

Action is in progress with respect to current or a reference time.

Turkish has two progressive markers, -(I)yor and -mAktA. Latter is used in more formal cases than former. Otherwise there is no clear distinction between the two. In some contexts, both suffixes may also indicate habitual aspect (Aspect=Hab described below).

Examples

Hab: habitual aspect (new proposal)

Verbal morphology in Turkish may indicate an action that happens repeatedly at present or past. This aspect is mainly marked with suffix -A/Ir. In some cases, the progressive suffix -(I)yor may indicate the habitual aspect, Her sabah 5 km koşuyorum “I ran 5 km every morning”. See Göksel and Kerslake (2005, pp289–290) for details.

Examples

Rapid: rapid sudden action (new proposal)

A particular verb form formed by suffix -Iver refers to actions that are sudden or performed rapidly. Kornfilt (1995, p.361) calls this rapid or sudden aspect.

Examples

Dur: durative aspect (new proposal)

A situation or action that has persisted over a period of time and still continues. This is called durative action (e.g., Kornfilt 1995, p.362). The suffixes -Akal, -Agel and -Adur indicate this aspect (the first one might better be defined as ‘durative stative’ and others ‘durative progressive’).

Examples

Pro: prospective aspect

The action is/was about to happen.

In Turkish, combination of feature tense marker -AcAk and the past tense marker -DI signal an event that was about to happen. Another (rather rare) means of expressing prospective aspect is with the suffix -Ayaz. This form is used only in a few fixed expressions, and it only combines with the past tense forms.

Examples

References


Aspect in other languages: [bg] [bm] [cs] [en] [et] [fr] [ga] [grc] [hu] [hy] [it] [pcm] [ru] [sl] [tr] [u] [uk] [urj]