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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Aspect: aspect

Values: Aor Conc Inch Imp ImpIter Iter Perf Prog Res

In Zaar, the aspect features are expressed together with aspect, mood, person and number features in a word functioning as a preverbal clitic tagged as an AUX. The exceptions are the inchoative and the resultative aspects which are directly attached to the verb, as a suffix for the inchoative, and a verbal particle (syntactic link = compound:prt) for the inchoative. The AUX is followed by a finite form of the verb, except for the progressive aspect which is followed by a verbal noun.

Aor: aorist

Zaar: The aorist is the default aspect, morphologically unmarked, and tonally associated with a low tone. It is used where TAM values are backgrounded, and in narration where they are contextually recoverable.


Conc: concomitant

Zaar: In narrations, the concomitant marks an unbounded process functioning as a temporal frame for another process. The inflection follows the pattern “pronoun+yáː+náː


Inch: inchoative

Zaar: The inchoative marks the beginning of a process. It can also change the lexical meaning of a verb from a state verb to a process verb (e.g. from ‘sit’ to ‘sit down’). It is expressed by the post-verbal particle ni.


Imp: imperfect

Zaar: The imperfect denotes a state or an unbounded process. It can be used in any temporal context, past, present or future. The inflection follows the pattern “pronoun+yáː”.


ImpIter: iterative imperfect

Zaar: The iterative imperfect is the combination of the imperfect and iterative aspects in the corresponding AUX. The inflection follows the pattern “pronoun+yǎː+yi”.


Iter: iterative

Zaar: The iterative aspect denotes a repeated or habitual process. The inflection follows the pattern “pronoun+yi”.


Perf: perfect

Zaar: The perfect aspect denotes a process completed with a resultative value: it has an impact on the state of affairs at the time referred to by the illocution. The inflection follows the pattern “pronoun+áː”.


Prog: progressive

Zaar: The progressive aspect denotes an ongoing process. The AUX is etymologically analysed as the combination of the copular verb yi ‘be’ and the ADP ká ‘at’. It is followed by a verbal noun.


Res: resultative

Zaar: the resultative aspect denotes the complete achievement of the process denoted by the verb, and the intensity of its effect on the affected object or on the resulting state of affairs. It is marked by the suffix -íː attached to the verb or its last dependant.


Aspect in other languages: [arr] [bej] [bg] [bm] [bor] [cs] [el] [eme] [ga] [gn] [gub] [ha] [hu] [hy] [hyw] [jaa] [ka] [ky] [la] [mdf] [myu] [myv] [nci] [pcm] [qpm] [ru] [say] [sl] [tpn] [tr] [tt] [u] [uk] [urb] [urj] [yrl]