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This page pertains to UD version 2.

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for clauses that modify a noun (in contrast to advcl which is used for clauses that modify a predicate). Clausal modifiers may precede the noun, and may be formed with (1) or without (2) the relativizer 的 de. They may also be postnominal, in which case they are simply juxtaposed after the noun without any linking function words (3-5).

# visual-style 4 2 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	人	_	NOUN	_	_	2	nsubj	_	people
2	説	_	VERB	_	_	4	acl	_	say
3	的	_	PART	_	_	2	mark:rel	_	REL
4	話	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	words

1	"words	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	(that)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	people	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	say"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 1 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	治	_	VERB	_	_	3	acl	_	cure
2	病	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	illnesses
3	方面	_	NOUN	_	_	5	nmod	_	aspect
4	的	_	PART	_	_	3	case	_	GEN
5	問題	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	matter

1	"the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	matter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	regarding	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	aspect	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	curing	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	illnesses"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Postnominal clausal modifiers (known as “descriptive clauses” in Li & Thompson, 1981) are headed by V2 in a [(NP1) V1 NP2 V2-clause] structure, where NP2 (i.e., the second noun phrase) is the direct object of V1 and the V2-clause describes information regarding NP2. This analysis is contingent on the [(NP1) V1 NP2 V2-clause] sequence being a single sentence with one intonational phrase and no pause in between.

# visual-style 2 3 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	exist
2	機會	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	chance
3	學壞	_	VERB	_	_	2	acl	_	learn-bad

1	"There's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	chance	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	learning	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	from	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	bad	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	people."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 6 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1PL
2	突然	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	suddenly
3	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	have
4	事	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	things
5	要	_	AUX	_	_	6	aux	_	need
6	忙	_	VERB	_	_	4	acl	_	be-busy-at

1	"We	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	suddenly	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	things	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	need	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	busy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	attending	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	to."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 6 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
2	昨天	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obl:tmod	_	yesterday
3	收	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	receive
4	到	_	VERB	_	_	3	compound:vv	_	arrive
5	信	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	letter
6	説	_	VERB	_	_	5	acl	_	say
7	我	_	PRON	_	_	8	nmod	_	1SG
8	帳户	_	NOUN	_	_	9	nsubj	_	account
9	没	_	VERB	_	_	6	ccomp	_	not-have
10	錢	_	NOUN	_	_	9	obj	_	money
11	了	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	received	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	letter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	yesterday	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	saying	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	bank	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	account	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	empty."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

References


acl in other languages: [bej] [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [it] [ja] [kk] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [yue] [zh]