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This page pertains to UD version 2.

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl stands for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun, in contrast to the advcl relation which is used for adverbial clauses that modify a predicate. The head of the acl relation is the noun that is modified, and the dependent is the head of the clause that modifies the noun.

These modifiers include infinitive and participial modifiers (correspond to infmod and partmod in the original Turku Dependency Treebank). Instead, the third possible type of clausal modifiers of nouns, relative clause modifier (acl:relcl), is defined as a subtype of acl.

Minulla oli lupa mennä ulos . \n I had permission to_go out .
nmod:own(oli-2, Minulla-1)
nsubj(oli-2, lupa-3)
acl(lupa-3, mennä-4)
advmod(mennä-4, ulos-5)
punct(oli-2, .-6)

The participial modifier is a participle verb which modifies a noun phrase. Note that the participle can take arguments, for instance a subject, just as any verb. (Also the MA-derivation is treated as a participle in UD Finnish.)

Äidin leipoma kakku oli menestys . \n Mother baked_by cake was success .
nsubj(leipoma-2, Äidin-1)
acl(kakku-3, leipoma-2)
nsubj:cop(menestys-5, kakku-3)
cop(menestys-5, oli-4)
punct(menestys-5, .-6)
Saadut lahjat ilahduttivat lapsia . \n Received presents made_happy children .
acl(lahjat-2, Saadut-1)
nsubj(ilahduttivat-3, lahjat-2)
obj(ilahduttivat-3, lapsia-4)
punct(ilahduttivat-3, .-5)

Occasionally, participial verb forms can modify a verb as well. These uses include cases that are clearly modifiers, as well as some more complement-like situations. In the complement-like situations, one of the clausal complement types (ccomp, xcomp or xcomp:ds) should be used, whereas modifiers are marked as adverbial clause modifiers (advcl).

Huolestuneena juoksin hänen luokseen . \n Worried I_ran him to .
advcl(juoksin-2, Huolestuneena-1)
nmod(juoksin-2, hänen-3)
case(hänen-3, luokseen-4)
punct(juoksin-2, .-5)
Ksylitoli osoittautui kariesta ehkäiseväksi . \n Xylitol turned_out karies preventing .
nsubj(osoittautui-2, Ksylitoli-1)
xcomp(osoittautui-2, ehkäiseväksi-4)
obj(ehkäiseväksi-4, kariesta-3)
punct(osoittautui-2, .-5)


Turku Dependency Treebank

We do not attempt to distinguish modifiers including secondary predication from other type of modifiers. Therefore, optional predicative like modifiers are attached to the main verb with one of the modifier relations.

acl in other languages: [bej] [bg] [bm] [cop] [cs] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fr] [fro] [ga] [gsw] [hy] [it] [ja] [kk] [no] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [urj] [yue] [zh]