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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Slovenian SST

Language: Slovenian (code: sl)
Family: Indo-European, Slavic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.3 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Kaja Dobrovoljc, Joakim Nivre.

Repository: UD_Slovenian-SST
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.13

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Genre: spoken

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Slovenian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [kaja • dobrovoljc (æt) ijs • si]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually, natively in UD style
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually, natively in UD style
Relations annotated manually, natively in UD style


The Spoken Slovenian UD Treebank (SST) is the first syntactically annotated corpus of spoken Slovenian, based on a sample of the reference GOS corpus, a collection of transcribed audio recordings of monologic, dialogic and multi-party spontaneous speech in different everyday situations.

The Spoken Slovenian UD Treebank (SST) is the first syntactically annotated corpus of spoken Slovenian. The manual annotations have been performed on a representative sample of the reference Gos corpus of spoken Slovenian (Zwitter Vitez et al. 2013), a collection of transcribed audio recordings of monologic, dialogic and multi-party spontaneous speech in different everyday situations. The treebank is representative of speakers (sex, age, region, education), communication channels (TV, radio, telephone, personal contact) and communication settings (TV and radio shows, lectures, meetings, consultations, services, conversations between friends etc.).

The spelling, tokenization and segmentation principles follow the transcription guidelines of the reference corpus (Verdonik et al. 2013) with the syntactic trees spanning over individual utterances (semantically, syntactically and acoustically delimited units, roughly corresponding to written sentences). The morphological and syntactic analysis in the SST treebank has been performed on top of normalized transcriptions that reduce the number of token types due to regional, colloquial and other pronunciation variation. However, information on pronunciation-based transcription and tokenization has been included as part of the MISC column.

The SST treebank includes manual annotations of lemmas, part-of-speech categories, morphological features and dependency relations in accordance with the Universal Dependencies annotation scheme. In addition to language-specific extensions, in line with the written Slovenian UD Treebank, the SST treebank also includes new speech-specific extensions to accommodate the structural and pragmatic particularities of spoken language syntax, such as disfluencies, fillers, parentheticals, general extenders etc. More information on the treebank construction and annotation is given in Dobrovoljc and Nivre (2016).

The current version of the SST treebank includes 3,188 utterances (sentences) or 29,488 tokens, produced by 606 speakers in 287 different speech events. As opposed to previous releases with unequal genre distributions, sentence-level randomization and different train-dev-test splits (UDv1 to UDv2.1), the SST UDv2.2 data has been randomized on text-level and split into testing (10,015) and training (19,473) subsets, in accordance with the CONLL-ST 2018 requirements. The original order of the utterances can be restored by sentence IDs.

All additional information related to the speech events (e.g. type of discourse, domain, channel) and the speakers (e.g. region, gender, education, age) can be retrieved from the original GOS 2.0 corpus available at https://www.clarin.si/repository/xmlui/handle/11356/1771.


Kaja Dobrovoljc (treebank construction and annotation) Joakim Nivre (guidelines consulting)

Key reference


Statistics of UD Slovenian SST

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview