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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Latvian Cairo

Language: Latvian (code: lv)
Family: Indo-European, Baltic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.14 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Lauma Pretkalniņa, Laura Rituma, Baiba Saulīte, Gunta Nešpore-Bērzkalne.

Repository: UD_Latvian-Cairo
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.14

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: grammar-examples

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Latvian-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [lauma (æt) ailab • lv]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This is an example treebank made to ilustrate UD annotation choices made for Latvian based on the Cairo sample sentences. Created by AI Lab at Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Latvia.

This treebank is developed together with the main Latvian UD Treebank (UD_Latvian-LVTB) by the same team with the same workflow and convertion tools. It contains the 20 Cairo example sentences and is meant to be a quick reference on how various syntactic constructions of Latvian are annotated in UD. For more information on Latvian UD Treebank, see the documentation of UD_Latvian-LVTB or the original LVTB treebank.


This work was supported by the State Research Programme’s project Research on Modern Latvian Language and Development of Language Technology under the grant agreement No. VPP-LETONIKA-2021/1-0006.


Statistics of UD Latvian Cairo

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview